Develop Charisma and Become More Likable

Likeability Blueprint

Have you ever wondered why more people don't like you as much as you feel they should? Are you a nice person that simply doesn't get the attention and love from other people that you should? Believe it or not, this is not your fault, and it's nothing about you! All you have to do is find the method to use with people to make them like you, and have NO idea why they like you so much. The method is called Automagnetism. Automagnetism is the way that you carry yourself that suggests things to people's minds that makes them like you without ever knowing way. You will be able to set yourself apart once you use the Likeability Blueprint; people won't know what hit them! All that it takes is a little bit of solid effort, and you can be on your way to getting people all over the place to like you! Read more here...

Likeability Blueprint Summary


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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable book so that purchasers of Likeability Blueprint can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

The papacy and religious movements before the Reformation

The charismatic female mystics who are prominent in late fourteenth-century Church History, above all Catherine of Siena, do not seem to have had a mass popular following, but were rather docilely accepted by the papacy even when they were attacking abuses. Catherine afterwards received the ultimate compliment of canonization (1461), as did Bridget of Sweden (1391).

The Pentecostal Contribution

What few people realize is that if you removed the emotional features from a Pentecostal church service, it would look just like a Baptist liturgy. Thus no matter how loudly Pentecostals claim that they are following New Testament patterns, the typical Pentecostal or charismatic church follows the same order of worship as do most other Protestant bodies. There is simply more freedom for emotional expression in the pew. ' ' ' By pinched we mean very restricted. Pentecostal and charismatic churches that have services that are completely open for the congregation to minister and share freely without any restrictions are not at all typical today. White, Protestant Worship, 204.

Church and Biblical Christianity

Symbols Victory Christianity

Was a base of support in the towns and cities, some of which were self-governing, and many of which were as impatient with church privilege as the princes. The third was the combination of a charismatic leader, Martin Luther (1483-1546), and the invention of the printing press to disseminate his ideas quickly and relatively cheaply. Printing also made it possible for the Bible to be put into the hands of increasing numbers of men and women and taken out of the church's exclusive control. The final ingredient was theological Luther's revival of an Augustinian reading of the Bible that emphasized the power of God, the sinfulness of man, and humanity's desperate need of God's salvation wrought by the unique work of Christ.

The Interpretation Of Scripture

Some forty years later, John Romanides advocated a striking theological and biblical hermeneutic based on the model of the charismatic saint.20 He defined the saint as one who has already achieved deification (theosis) in the present life. According to Romanides, only such living deified saints, who have experienced the spiritual realities to which the scriptures testify, can function as unerring agents of biblical interpretation and all other theological discourse besides. In later decades, John Breck has placed the emphasis not on individual saints but on the charisma of spiritual vision (theoria) itself. For him, theoria manifests the attribute of receptivity and spiritual perception of God's saving presence, the essence of the witness of scripture, supremely experienced in worship.21 Breck finds modern historical methodology virtually useless, but the use of allegory, typology and chiasmus valuable, in that regard. Rather than looking to modern biblical scholarship, according to...

Bodies without Boundaries

Ulpian observed that some slaves were marked as chattel through fetters or branding, possibly a form of tattooing, often on the face.18 A slave who ran away would be placed in fetters or permanently tattooed to forestall future attempts to flee. In the surviving fragments of the outrageous first-century novel known as the Satyricon, Petronius describes a misbegotten attempt to disguise the leading characters, Encolpius and Giton, as runaway slaves, in order to help them escape detection Eumolpus then covered our heads with long block letters drawing the notorious signs tattooed on runaway slaves. 19 Ulpian implies that such slaves, whose physical appearance advertised their servile (and renegade) status, warranted no respect of their persons or bodies. The thick bronze collar worn by the nameless slave of the archdeacon Felix proclaimed, Hold me so that I do not flee. Indeed, Ulpian suggests that, by placing his slave in such a collar, Felix had granted permission to other freeborn...

Notes on Contributors

Allan Anderson is Reader in Pentecostal Studies in the Department of Theology at the University of Birmingham. He has a D.Th. from the University of South Africa, where he worked for 23 years as a Pentecostal Charismatic minister and theological educator. He has written numerous articles and five books on African Pentecostalism and Independentism and has edited two books on global Pentecostalism. His latest books are African Reformation (2001) and An Introduction to Pentecostalism (2004).

Practical Applications of the Sufficiency of Scripture

The sufficiency of Scripture shows us that no modern revelations from God are to be placed on a level equal to Scripture in authority. At various times throughout the history of the church, and particularly in the modern charismatic movement, people have claimed that God has given revelations through them for the benefit of the church. However we may evaluate such claims,3 we must be careful never to allow (in theory or in practice) the placing of such revelations on a level equal to Scripture.4 We must insist that God does not require us to believe anything about himself or his work in the world that is contained in these revelations but not in Scripture. And we must insist that God does not require us to obey any moral directives that come to us through such means but that are not confirmed by Scripture. The Bible contains everything we need God to tell us for trusting and obeying him perfectly.5 4 4. In fact, the more responsible spokesmen for the modern charismatic movement seem...

Relationship between Church and Secular Authority

Whilst emperors did sometimes dominate the 'external' matters of the Church, such as its finances, and appointment of senior clergy, they were not usually so involved with its internal affairs. There were specific roles for the emperor to play within liturgical worship, but the main challenge to the patriarch's authority was often not from the emperor but from monks, whose machinations during some of the Ecumenical Councils reflected the influence they also held over the emperor. The charismatic authority of monks, whose rapid spread is demonstrated by the number of monasteries in Constantinople, formed effectively a third power base to add to that of imperium and sacerdotum. The role of monks in defending the veneration of holy icons was merely the start of their influence on affairs of state. Rivalry within the Byzantine Church caused much squabbling about the validity of ordinations (as noted above) and about the problems of being in communion with certain clergy colleagues as a...

Where Did The Christian Sermon Come From

They were masters at using emotional appeals, physical appearance, and clever language to sell their arguments.' In time, the style, form, and oratorical skill of the sophists became more prized than their accuracy.19 This spawned a class of men who became masters of fine phrases, cultivating style for style's sake. The truths they preached were abstract rather than truths that were practiced in their own lives. They were experts at imitating form rather than substance.

Secondary Sources

The occult and the charismatic in the early church (Oxford, 1976) Diepen, H.-M. Les Trois Chapitres au Concile de Chalcedoine (Oosterhuit, 1953) Flemming, J., ed. Akten der ephesischen Synode vom Jahre 449 (G ttingen, 1917) Frend, W H. C. The rise of the Monophysite movement (Cambridge, 1972) Grillmeier, A. Christ in Christian tradition, part II Church of Constantinople in the sixth century, Vol. II. From the Council of Chalcedon (451 ) to Gregory the Great (5 90-604), trans. J. Cawte and P. Allen (Oxford, 1995) Hefele, C. Histoire des conciles d'apr s les documents originaux, trans. H. Leclercq (Paris, 190749)

The New Evangelical Radicalism

Since 1973 the Sojourners magazine (originally called The Post-American) has been a unique forum where those who have been influenced by the charismatic renewal have come together with those affected by the new social consciousness. In addition, what began as a rigidly evangelical journal has, over the years, come to incorporate insights from the Catholic contemplative tradition of Merton and Henri Nouwen, and the Catholic radical tradition of Dorothy Day and the Berrigans. Contributors to its pages reflect the presence throughout the USA of churches and communities which seek to hold together the contemplative and active dimensions of ministry such as the Church of the Saviour in Washington DC and the Church of the Messiah in Detroit. The movement is ecumenical, liturgical, and biblical, defying earlier categories of definition.

Early Portraits of the Saints and the Question of Likeness

Almost as soon as saints' portraits appeared, they7 began to play a significant role in the devotional practices of the faithful. Portraits were not seen as edifying alternatives to written texts or lessons from Scripture, but rather a means of focusing the viewer's attention 011 an individual whose life was particularly holy and who, though no longer alive on earth, was still spiritually present. These images achieved this by representing physical appearance of a saint's or martyr's face and body, often with few definitive background or associated narrative elements apart from the helpful inclusion of the saints name over his or her head However, these images were regarded i-, more than mere records of physical appearance, and such they began to receive veneration tir ht tmagc, vu y ri ilk h Ii ke paga n port raits of the gods or ti le ein pe tori ta d . Peuple understood i J i concept of offering llt of respect, Ililc. and reverence to jk liri l l- as a means of showing tlio c same...

The Origin Of The Worship Team

In many contemporary churches, whether charismatic or noncharis-matic, the choir has been replaced by the worship team. Such churches have sanctuaries that boast few religious symbols (except possibly banners). The song liturgy just described works like clockwork in the typical charismatic and nondenominational church. But where did it come from

New Models Of The Church

A similar model is used by the Vineyard Churches, which originated in Anaheim, California, and are particularly associated with John Wimber (1934-97). The Vineyard movement grew out of the Calvary Chapel network Wimber led a breakaway group that was concerned in part that Calvary did not give sufficient attention to the role of spiritual gifts. The charismatic movement was becoming a significant presence in California in the 1970s, and Wimber had been involved in its development, teaching a controversial course on signs and wonders at Fuller Theological Seminary. Like Calvary Chapel, the Vineyard movement does not regard itself as a denomination, but as an association or fellowship. It has no centralized structures or authority figures.

Edward Irving 17921834 The Rapture and the Rupture Between Israel and the Church

The development of premillennialism in the nineteenth century, and the revolution in prophetic and apocalyptic speculation concerning the 'rapture' and the return of Christ can be largely attributed to the Scottish, Edward Irving1, also the forerunner of the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements.2 2 Arnold Dallimore, The Life of Edward Irving The Fore-runner of the Charismatic Movement (Edinburgh, Banner of Truth, 1983) Gordon Strachan, The Pentecostal Theology of Edward Irving (Peabody, Massachusetts, 1973). 7 Arnold Dallimore, The Life of Edward Irving, Fore-runner of the Charismatic Movement (Edinburgh, Banner of Truth, 1983), p. 62.

The Growth Of American Pentecostalism

Popular journalism around the time of the Azusa Street revival made clear the antipathy felt toward the movement, which aroused both racial and theological prejudices Colored people and a sprinkling of Whites compose the congregation, and night is made hideous in the neighborhood by the howlings of the worshippers who spend hours swaying forth and back in a nerve-racking attitude of prayer and supplication. The key role played by women in the revival was out of line with contemporary cultural norms and once more attracted negative media coverage.4 More significantly, the charismatic experiences reported seemed to many to represent a new outbreak of the enthusiasm that mainline Protestantism had regarded with intense suspicion, laced with not a little cultural disdain, since the eighteenth century.5 Pentecostalism began to become respectable and accepted in white middle-class America through the neo-charismatic renewal of the 1960s. In part, this change in attitude can be put down to...

Islam as Counterculture

Once Islam was on the agenda, the main issue was to determine which form of the religion was likely to gain most support. For Muslims, as for immigrant Christians, authoritarian, charismatic, and demanding styles appeal to a particular market, namely, adolescents and young adults, commonly suffering from multiple social deprivation and moreover observing gender roles in the process of rapid transition. At a time of social upheaval and chaos, rigid forms of Islam offer an island of stability and certainty, especially for young men. These developments echo Antonio Gramsci's remark The crisis consists precisely in the fact that the old is dying, and the new cannot be born in this interregnum a great variety of morbid symptoms appear. 20

Made in the Image of

God is reproducing Himself by building a Family that will become the Kingdom of God. This has been God's plan and purpose from the very beginning, before anything was ever created, including the spirit world with the angelic realm. Before God created anything, He determined how He would fulfill His plan. God predetermined that man would be made in His very image, after His likeness. This first phase was the physical phase of His creation of mankind when He (God) made his (man's) physical appearance after His image. God revealed His plan and purpose by inspiring these verses in Genesis 1 to use only the word Elohim. God did this for great reason because He was showing the purpose of all that He worked to do during those first six days, and on this sixth day He created mankind. The word Elohim is used to show His purpose because the word is a uniplural word that reveals His Family and the name He has given it Elohim. It was Yahweh Elohim who created mankind, and He was speaking...

Traditions and Legends regarding Jesus Appearance

Other than the cryptic allusions to Jesus' physical appearance in Justin or in Origen (who cited the text of Isaiah as if it were historically descriptive), only a few references to eyewitness descriptions of Jesus' appearance occur in the literature. On the other hand, traditions that actual portraits were made from life1' were more widely known. Among the rare textual witnesses is a letter supposedly written bya fictitious governor of Judea, Pubis lis Lentulus, to the h

Joels Prophecy Of Baptism In The Spirit And Fire

God promised repentant Israel former and latter rain (Joel 2 23). Charismatics claim that the former rain refers to the original outpouring of the Spirit at Pentecost, and the latter rain denotes the charismatic revival of the last days. Contrary to their opinion, this verse and James 5 7-8 are linked Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord. Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain. Be ye also patient stablish your hearts for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh. Hence, the rain ties with the outpouring of the Spirit predicted by Joel, and the latter rain designates an event which will immediately precede Christ's second coming.

The Contribution Of Calvin And Company

McGee, eds., Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements (Grand Rapids Zondervan, 1988), 904. The Word in Reformed usage meant the Bible and the preached word as conveying the incarnated Word. Both the sermon and Scripture-reading were connected and were viewed as the Word (Nichols, Corporate Worship, 30). The idea that the preaching of the Bible is the very Word of God appears in the Confessio Helvetica Posterior of 1566. Such thinking is a throwback to the late medieval view of piety. Yet it was embraced and kept alive by Calvin and Bucer. While many contemporary Pentecostals and Charismatics broke with this tradition, it is mindlessly followed in many churches today. The message is Be quiet and solemn, for this is the house of God

The Shaping Of Trinitarian Doctrine And Language

Patristic writings, in continuity with the New Testament, reflect the Church's faith in Jesus Christ, dead and risen. It is from the core of a chris-tological approach that the trinitarian vision of the apostolic Fathers and their successors unfolds. Likewise, the Spirit is known by his advent at Pentecost and by his permanent indwelling of the Church. He is the Giver of new life, that is, the life in Christ, and of prophetic and charismatic gifts (cf. Acts and i Cor) in the context of an eschatological inauguration of messianic times in the sacramental 'today' of the Church. Thus, instead of providing reflections about the Spirit, the Fathers share with us their experience of the Spirit in the Church. Christocentrism and belief in the power of the Holy Spirit do not diminish the early Fathers' fundamental theocentrism they emphasise that it is God the Father who is the Principle of divine activity in the world and who manifests himself in his incarnate Son and in his life-giving...

Tale of Two Cities Past and Future

There is fear and apprehension about the future. On the one hand, science and technology promise a world of dazzling prosperity. Yet on the other hand, nuclear war and biological and chemical terrorism threaten the very existence of our world. A great charismatic leader in Europe will arise, responding to this crisis. He will enter into an alliance By this time, millions all over the globe will have been caught up in a religious frenzy fed by a charismatic leader working what are apparently great signs and wonders. More con

Tongues Of Fire The Pentecostal Revolution In Protestantism

For this example and an excellent analysis of the movement in general, see Allan Anderson, An Introduction to Pentecostalism (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2004). There is a mass of useful information in the authoritative collection assembled by Stanley M. Burgess and Ed M. van der Maas, eds., The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements (Grand Rapids, MI Zondervan, 2003). 8. For a popular account of the movement's development in the United States, see Jack W. Hayford and S. David Moore, The Charismatic Century The Enduring Impact of the Azusa Street Revival (New York Warner Faith, 2006). 13. See the careful analysis of Allan Anderson, Revising Pentecostal History in Global Perspective, in Asian and Pentecostal The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia, edited by Allan Anderson and Edmond Tang (Oxford Regnum Books International, 2005), 147-73. 16. This point is stressed by Margaret M. Poloma, The Assemblies of God at the Crossroads Charisma and...

The church in evangelical theology and practice

The focus of doctrinal energy in evangelicalism has long been on Jesus Christ and Scripture. Other doctrinal issues have also occupied attention, such as charismatic gifts, the extent of salvation, and the last days. But ecclesiology has not aroused much interest or energy. A recent book on issues in evangelical theology includes eighteen doctrinal topics that have interested evangelicals but does not include ecclesiology at all.21 When issues of ecclesiology have emerged, they have tended to focus on controversies of women's ordination, crises of leadership abuse or scandal, or innovations in worship style that push the boundaries of the community's identity. Ecclesiology, in other words, has tended to be marginalized to matters of polity, governance, finances, and leadership. more attentive to the unique characteristics of the evangelical ethos. Yet, some of the most important descriptors of evangelicalism itself, including individualism, voluntarism, emotionalism often paired with...

Wittenberg Local Alternatives To Luther

The Reformation at Wittenberg in the early 1520s centered on three very different dynamic and charismatic individuals Martin Luther, Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt, and Thomas M ntzer. With his public profile, Luther was by far the most visible and well-known representative of the reforming movement in Germany. Yet his ideas did not find universal acceptance, even within Wittenberg itself. Luther

The Byzantine Conceptual World View

The rival theories about authority within the Church, including the status (marital and otherwise) of clergy. With regard to the filioque controversy, it needs to be noted that although a creed had been forged by the Ecumenical Councils culminating in that of Chalcedon in 451, the status of the Holy Spirit had not been adequately addressed the focus of theological thought had been on the person of Christ and his relationship to the Father. This situation presented a Church that believed in the charismatic authority of 'illuminated' living saints with a significant challenge. Experiential wisdom, which ratified the teachings of scripture, relied on divine inspiration for its authority. So the whole issue of the 'procession of the Holy Spirit' became a rallying ground for opposite camps, culminating in the involvement of the patriarch Photius mentioned above.

Rabbi Abbahu Miracles Of Healing

The Amoraic period in this period one reads of more activities of Rabbis as holy men. As was shown above, Amoraim tend to ascribe such qualities to Tannaim, and to narratives about them are added those about the Amoraim themselves. L. Levine collected a number of such testimonies63 to which one might add a few more, but the total number is not large. The following examples were chosen to illustrate the dubious role that supernatural, or charismatic activities play in establishing rabbinic status. In addition to the power of prayer, other attributes of the charismatic include raising from the death, healing the sick and asceticism.69 We will discuss just two (a) A person asks Rabbi Johanan to heal him. The sage sends him to Rabbi Haninah, who advises him to study. Thus Torah study is put in place of medical treatment. 70 The (k) The Rabbis thereby willingly waived a source of power and of authority. The way of the holy man or charismatic contradicts that of the Rabbis. The Rabbis...

Faith Against The World Luthers Discovery

Luther is hardly a 'humanist' he has no interest in classical learning as such, let alone classical ethics. But his personal and professional concern with the interpretation of Scripture drives him to a more sustained engagement with what lies behind the surface of the text than can be managed within the framework of conventional scholastic theology, and he shares with the Erasmian circle a problem over reality and appearances. He is also very clearly the heir of the negative mysticism of Eckhart and Tauler he translated into German the post-Tauler compendium, the Theologia Germanica. The stress in Tauler and similar writers on faith as a pilgrimage into a territory without 'means' or methods, into a desert where religious observances guarantee no tangible results, is forcefully reflected in Luther's fierce hostility both to a religious busyness designed to secure divine favour and a 'charismatic' focus on experiences of assurance. In the second decade of the sixteenth century, Luther...

Jesus1 Variant and Changing Appearances in

Although later (Rv antinc and early medieval) representations of lesus have a remarkable degree of consistency, the earliest artistic portrayals of Christ (in the third and fourth centuries) show significant inconsistency Sometimes Christ appears as youth led and beardless, some times as older, with full beard. Of course* he is also shown or symbolized) through the familiar visual metaphors of shepherd, lamb, or even fisher. One possible explanation for these varying presentations is that it simply took time for artists and their clients to achieve the right look for lesus, perhaps struggling to find the key combination of features and attributes that conveyed his dua naturesj while still honoring some ancient traditions or memories concerning his physical appearance.

The Mystery of Melchizedek

The story is important for reasons other than what Paul addressed. As it says in Hebrews 7, this Melchizedek was without father, without mother and without descent. He was a man in physical appearance, but it is clear he was not born of mankind, since he had no father or mother, and he had no Melchizedek functioned only as God lived through him. Melchizedek was not a separate individual living being, but only a vessel through whom God worked. Melchizedek functioned (in physical appearance as a priest) as a representative of God. Notice what is said of Christ who became High Priest

Tableaus of the peaceable kingdom

Thomas Kincaid Shire

A noteworthy feature of the Lord of the Rings, particularly as it was brought to the screen in the three recent films by director Peter Jackson, is its scenery. The tranquil Hobbit's shire and the misty surrealism of the elves' ancestral home at Rivendell are stunning achievements of New Zealand's natural beauty enhanced by the artistry of stage crews and CGI (computer generated imagery) technology. These are utopian landscapes, both in their idealized beauty and in their ideological ways of depicting visual milieus for the good life. Regarding the latter, the Hobbit's shire with its lowland kitchen gardens and Hundertwasseresque earthen-mound burrows is an environmentalist's paradise, and Rivendell with its Gaudi-like filigree, reflecting pools, lonely balconies and arcades, rising from an effervescent river in a hidden valley, is the idealized, sequestered academic cloister, where the immortal elves have safely archived the wisdom of the ages in runes. Utopias are sincere efforts to...

The Limits of Morality

In that very short time though, gay rights have in Europe at least achieved the status of fundamental human values, to be rigorously defended by law. Far from this trend showing any signs of moderating, the determination to enforce Europe's supposed core values appears all the greater. Powers to exercise surveillance over Muslim preachers to track subversive sentiments, to detect anti-gay or anti-feminist views, could easily be used to unearth reactionary opinions among Christian or Jewish congregations. And if the state insists that Muslim clergy be citizens of the European countries in which they preach, surely the same principle must be applied to other faiths, including Christians, a policy that would have far-reaching effects on immigrant Christian communities. If governments regulate or suppress transnational evangelists like the Tablighi Jamaat, they could equally well exclude charismatic African-based churches. went beyond mere attempts to prevent...

Miri Rubin And Walter Simons

The calamities experienced in later medieval Europe, in the wake of the traumatic visitation of famine (1315-22), the Black Death (1347-50) and the recurrent waves of plague in subsequent decades, only served to enhance the intensity of preoccupation with death and the afterlife. It left a depleted European population, but also opened opportunities for those who remained. Polities and communities leapt to associations between disaster and moral danger the Black Death led to attacks on Jews and to the annihilation of their communities throughout the Holy Roman Empire a rhetoric grew perched upon the dialectic of purity and danger. A new style of European communication developed through a new type of preacher whose audience was no longer the people of a parish or a city, but whole regions. The papacy - caught up in its own struggles for self-definition throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries - recruited and licensed charismatic preachers from among the ranks of the most...

The First Century Spirit Gifts

Other Pentecostals say that tongue-speaking is not a proof of having been saved. This highlights the fact that there are major doctrinal differences between those claiming to possess the gifts. Thus some 'charismatics' believe that God's Kingdom will be on earth, while others say it is in heaven. Catholic 'charismatics' claim that the Holy Spirit tells them to worship Mary and the Pope, whilst some Pentecostal 'charismatics' say that their possession of the Holy Spirit orders them to denounce the Pope as antichrist, and to condemn Catholic doctrine. Yet Jesus stated beyond doubt that those possessing the Comforter, which is the Holy Spirit , would be guided into all truth in that day ye shall (need to) ask me nothing the Comforter shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you (Jn. 16 13,23 4 26). The claims of tongue-speaking and miracles being achieved by modern charismatic Christians must be weighed against the considerable...

The ritual roots of rock

Are all key figures in the secularization of many of the conventions of gospel music as it metamorphosed into soul, moving its most appealing features from the house of worship to the nightclub. The hymn-lining interactions of the song leader and his chorus, the syncopated movements of the shouter and the swaying, handclapping supporters of the outer ring, the accelerating pace of each verse with a crescendo in the refrain, the moans, howls and gesticulations of the black preacher, the rhythmic release of tension and pent up emotions and the harmonic patterns of gospel survive in soul. Ray Charles, who grew up Baptist, imported the charisma and stylistic genius of the itinerant evangelist into his routine. Some of his biggest hits were barely disguised gospel favorites, and his style of piano playing would have been equally at home at a revival service. It is not hard to hear the gospel standard This Little Light of Mine audible in the background of This Little Girl of Mine. His songs...

Aspects of Byzantine Orthodoxy 8501095 The patriarchate

The tenth and eleventh centuries saw a host of monastic foundations throughout the Byzantine world. The influence of the Studite reform was great, but not exclusive. Monastic founders who drew in their own way on the wealth of the Byzantine monastic tradition include John of Rila (c. 876-946) and Nikon the Preacher of Repentance (c. 930-c. 1000),16 Lazarus of Mount Galesius (c. 981-1053)17 and Christodulus of Patmos (d. 1093). The career of St. Symeon the New Theologian (c. 949-1022) across the turn of the millennium, with his profound ascetic and mystical theology and his clashes with patriarchal authority, illustrates the potential tension that existed between institutional authority and the charismatic appeal of the monk. It also illustrates one of the ways in which monks related to contemporary society through the provision of spiritual counseling.

Two Branches of Christianity

However, the church that began to grow and become large was the one that Simon (Peter) Magus established. By mixing various beliefs of the truth he had heard from the disciples with the false teachings of other religions in the world around him, he made his counterfeit of Christianity attractive to many. Simon was quite clever, as were those who succeeded him, in devising a charismatic religion that would exercise great influence over the fears and superstitions of man.

Christianity beyond the West

At exactly the same time that Christianity went into serious decline in the West it entered a phase of rapid growth in the southern hemisphere. By the last quarter of the 20th century, Charismatic Christianity had become one of the fastest growing forms of religion in the world, second only to resurgent Islam. Like the latter, its success has tended to be greatest in areas that had formerly been under Western colonial control. This recent Christian upsurge has involved many different sorts of churches colonial churches (both Protestant and Catholic), independent churches, and new indigenous churches. It is associated, above all, with the pan-denominational movement of Pentecostal or Charismatic Christianity - which may influence or inspire any of the different types of church just mentioned, but which is most closely associated with Biblical Protestantism. The World Christian Encyclopaedia estimates that Charismatic Christianity has increased its share from 6.4 of global church...

Particularization from the Seventh Century Onwards

From the seventh century onwards Syriac hagiographic works continued to be produced. However, compared with the older vitae, most of the texts written in honour of medieval indigenous Syrian saints had no more than a local or temporal influence, often a very restricted one. Thus, we have clearly to distinguish between the meaning of such a text in its original historical and ecclesiastical context, and its modern meaning, which may be quite different for Syrian Christians themselves who, in most cases, will never have heard of it, and for scholars who might be extremely interested in a single surviving manuscript. The Life of Theodotos of Amida (d. 698), a wandering charismatic, is a good example of this type of text. It is an untypical vita, as it obviously goes back to the dictation of an eyewitness who lacked literary skill, so that he had to rely on a scribe in order to put down the memory of 'his' saint. The authenticity of the report, its closeness to the historical saint, as...


Simon Coleman, The Globalization of Charismatic Christianity Spreading the Gospel of Prosperity (Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2000), 24-26. 3. The best study is Jon Ruthven, On the Cessation of the Charismata The Protestant Polemic on PostbiblicalMiracles (Sheffield, UK Sheffield Academic Press, 1993).

Julian Letters on Religion

Flavius Claudius Julianus (ca. 331-363) reigned as emperor for only nineteen months (361-363), but left a lasting impact on subsequent Christian conceptions of the imperial house. Although raised a Christian, Julian took the opportunity of his ascension to power to renounce his Christian upbringing and publicly declare himself a worshipper of the traditional gods of Greece and Rome. He called himself a Hellene, emphasizing the link between traditional culture and cult later Christians called him the Apostate. Julian recounted his early attraction to non-Christian philosophy and religion Maximus, to whom Julian writes plaintively in Letter 8, was an early charismatic influence in this respect. Julian supposedly pursued this religious vocation secretly until his rise to power (see his description in Letter 19, To a Priest ).

The ulama AND discourses Of Orthodoxy

Ibn al-JawzI's teachings reached an ever wider audience, and the caliph eventually granted him legal powers to pursue heretics. Initially, Ibn al-Jawzi's campaign was directed against Shi'is, but soon also non-Hanbalite Sunni scholars began to feel marginalised. Eventually the persecution touched also the Hanbali community, when heretical philosophical works were discovered in a madrasa led by a prominent Hanbali scholar the latter was relieved of his directorship and the madrasa was turned over to the direct control of Ibn al-Jawzi. However, while Ibn al-Jawzi's career is not unique, his inquisitorial powers represent an exception that was enabled not by the strength and dominance of the views he represented, but by the force of his personal charisma.

The Church with All Its Lights On

Other groups trace their origin to the charismatic movement, which grew in parallel with the Pentecostal and charismatic movements within Protestantism. Counting Catholics and Protestants together, the numbers are impressive, especially when we compare them with the Muslim population that has received so much media attention in recent years roughly, Europe's evangelicals, charismatics, and pentecostals outnumber Muslims by almost two to one, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future (see Table 3.2). Charismatics became a potent force within the Catholic Church during the late 1960s, and in 1975 they received the powerful backing of Pope Paul VI. In the 1970s, the movement developed a significant Evangelicals, Charismatics These groups can belong to any denomination. The figures for charismatics, for instance, include Roman Catholic and Anglican charismatics, and most British evangelicals are members of the Church of England. Please also note that the authors include Russia...

Evidence of Classical Sources51

These men were probably distinguished by their manner of preaching - messianic, apocalyptic, charismatic, even demagogic - threatening hellfire and end of the world that seems to have been a peculiarity of Biblical prophets. (One may see their kind in America even today, where it is big business. A few of them have their own television shows.) Our best guess is that preachers of this kind were known to outsiders as 'Christ' or 'Chrestus' just as we now use the term Yogi to mean one who practices Yoga - or claims to - and not any particular individual. All these - a whole tradition - was later made by Christian scribes to coalesce into a single personality identified with Jesus. A fuller study of the Qumran material now made available by the Huntington Library might help bring more such Christ Chrestus personalities to light.

Major Debate Has Begun

So bit by bit, the word is getting out about Paradise Restored. No book in the history of the Christian church has stated the biblical case (I emphasize the word biblical) for long-term optimism more eloquently and clearly than Paradise Restored. Its success has spread the message far and wide. It has penetrated traditional dispensational circles as no postmillennial book ever has, especially in charismatic circles. It is quite likely that the charismatic churches will divide over this issue before the year 2000 (though it would be healthier if they divided instead over Pastor Ray Sutton's book, That You May Prosper

Digression 8 These signs shall follow them that believe Mark 1617

Of all the charismatic Christians who have claimed to possess the gifts during the past one hundred years, there has been no realistic evidence of such powers being exercised. Unless every believer can and does perform signs of such magnitude, this promise cannot apply today. This leaves us with the conclusion which we have already drawn from our survey of Bible teaching about the Spirit these miraculous gifts were possessed by the early Christian believers in the first century, but they Footnote So widespread are the claims of present possession of the Spirit gifts that in 1989 two public debates were held between a Charismatic Christian Pastor, John Liliekas, and two

Challenges facing pope benedict xvi

Pope John Paul II, after reigning for 26 years as pope, died on April 2, 2005. For younger Catholics he was the only pope they had ever known. He had been a charismatic leader who traveled to all parts of the world, urging his flock to follow the Gospel teachings. In a special way, he had an apostolate to young believers, frequently attending their congresses throughout the world. In an attempt to preserve the unity of his flock he had established a strong centralized authority and proclaimed the strength of traditional Catholic moral habits and teachings. He had also reached out to Orthodox Christians and to members of other religious communities.

Lactatio Virginis

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, both within the convents, where the institutional version prevailed, and without, where the charismatic aspect was rather more present, a particular form of female teaching, which we could define as spiritual maternity, was present and active as a recognized element of sanctity. It is well known, in fact, that a nun from the convent of Santa Croce in Brescia was considered mother by Gaetano da Thiene, one of the founders of the Order of the Clerics Regular Theatines so too, Paola Antonia Negri, first teacher of the Angelics, a female branch of the first Regular Clerics of Saint Paul (known as the Barnabites), who kept, until her imprisonment in a convent, the title of Divina Madre Maestra (Divine Mother Teacher), which she had been called due to unconditional faith in her charisma as spiritual guide.17 Not even the Jesuits were exempt from the influence of charismatics, whom they considered examples, until the authority of the Roman Church...

Places Of Learning

Ibn al-JawzI's teachings reached an ever wider audience, and the caliph eventually granted him legal powers to pursue heretics. Initially, Ibn al-Jawzi's campaign was directed against Shi'is, but soon also non-Hanbalite Sunni scholars began to feel marginalised. Eventually the persecution touched also the Hanbali community, when heretical philosophical works were discovered in a madrasa led by a prominent Hanbali scholar the latter was relieved of his directorship and the madrasa was turned over to the direct control of Ibn al-JawziI. However, while Ibn al-JawzI's career is not unique, his inquisitorial powers represent an exception that was enabled not by the strength and dominance of the views he represented, but by the force of his personal charisma.


The movement is seen at its strongest in a London parish such as Holy Trinity, Brompton (HTB), which attracts over 3,000 to its Sunday services. Like an American megachurch, the life of Holy Trinity is based on intense small group activities, organized through its fifty pastorates, lay-led groups of twenty-five to thirty each who meet fortnightly in non-church locations. As the church advises members, The pastorates are not one program amongst many that the church supports the pastorates are the church. Holy Trinity is committed to church planting and has established seven offshoot churches following its evangelical principles and worship style. Though HTB has acquired worldwide fame, it is by no means the only church of its kind. In Chorleywood in Hertfordshire, we find the charismatic church of St. Andrew's, which is also part of the Anglican church and also offers an impressive range of levels of involvement. Besides full-scale services, the church's Mid-Size Communities give a...

Matthew Steenberg

Generally speaking, two models or perceptions of church hierarchy and organisation predominate in Orthodox discussion. The first, perhaps the most common, is of a linearity of power and authority, taken in the positive sense of the power given to the apostles by Christ (cf. Mt 9 8, io i, Mk 6 7, Lk 24 29) and authoritatively preserved through the generations. This pattern traces the episcopal lineage of the churches from the twelve apostles, through the ecclesiastical centres they founded, locating their authoritative structure in the unbroken connection to these first descendants. In each location a bishop, in direct succession to his predecessors, is surrounded by his priests and deacons, whose authority as ministers of the sacraments and teachers of the gospel encounter comes through the charismatic preservation of apostolic heritage and mission. From at least the second century the priests have been taken to symbolise the 'council of elders' - i.e. the apostles - and the deacons,...

Concluding Remarks

It should be pointed out that the Indian understanding of the Judaeo-Christian tradition has not been purged of the anti-Semitic attitude of the early western theologies or of Hinduism. Because the worth of the Hebrew Scripture was relegated to the position of mere preparation and promise for fulfilment in Christ, some Indian Christian theologians like Chenchiah and Chakkarai have gone to the confused extent of suggesting the replacement of it with some Hindu scriptures, but without clarifying their axioms. Today we have to take the Jewish-Christian relationship within a continuum, a single process in which God, with mysterious names like Yahweh and Trinity, has specially located himself in the faith journey of a community which had its origin in slavery and liberation, and which experienced extension and renewal. God's struggle with this community, both challenging deviation and taking new initiatives, is uniquely insightful. The significance of Jesus, perceived and confessed in...

Diasporic Faith

Apart from their ethnic character, Europe's immigrant Christians are set apart from the old-stock population by many aspects of belief and practice. Whatever the denomination, global South Christian churches usually have a powerful charismatic quality, a belief in miracles, healings, and visions. Christians, like Muslims, are also fundamentalist in the generic Western liberal sense, that is, they tend to take religious texts very seriously and believe they should shape and transform everyday lives. Parallels between the faiths owe something to demographics. Christian churches, like Muslim mosques, appeal to a largely young following and are often led by enthusiastic young adults. Both also come from societies with a definite belief in the power of spiritual forces to combat real evils, including illnesses of body and mind. Both are thus readily accused of extremism or fanaticism.18 Also, the irrelevance of borders to such movements meshes well with the universal teachings of the...

The Language of Love

Point in his study of pre-Christian social welfare when he notes that in classical culture ''philanthropy'' meant love among men or human love not charity or social welfare. And Jaeger notes that by the time of Shakespeare, the increasing privatization of love viewed public expressions of love for such charismatic persons as kings, rulers, churchmen, and saints -common in the Middle Ages - as hypocritical gambits for advancement.

Kingdom Theology

Kingdom theology grows out of the dominion concept. In fact, the terms are often used interchangeably. The phrase kingdom theology is widely used in certain charismatic circles. It has not been used by those who advocate a dominion theology, although there are many points of agreement. Basically, kingdom theology deals with the timing and nature of the kingdom. Is the kingdom


Belief in a figure who will come to the world in the end-time to combat the forces of darkness or evil is a theme common to the Western religious traditions. Meaning in history is brought to vindication through this potent image of a cosmic conflagration, succeeded by a just resolution and the ultimate victory of the good. The Muslim messianic figure, known as the Mahdi, or ''guided one'', is generally presented in hadith chapters called the books of crises, calamities or civil wars (fitan). For most Sunnis the Mahdi concept has not been particularised around strong millenarian expectations, although in times of crisis it may be invoked, for example in various historical Mahdist movements, and in some Sufi-influenced, or politically driven movements featuring millenarian overtones. The last significant Mahdist movement was that of the Sudanese, Muhammad Ahmad ibn 'Abd Allah (d. 1885). Among earlier (and very diverse) examples of millenarianism were the Abbasid revolution of the eighth...

Ascetic orientation

Ued the charismatic tradition of the New Testament, and 'grazers', who lived more or less naked in the wilderness, enacting the life of Adam and Eve in Eden. The prototype of the stylites, St Symeon (d. 459), who, according to Theodoret, was famous all over the Roman Empire during his lifetime, spent most of his life on top of a pillar. Of course, almost all hagiographic testimonies - even those which are close to a saint's life, such as Theodoret's stories, rely more or less on an eyewitness - attribute to their heroes other aims than those of modern biographers and historical researchers. Nevertheless, the historical kernel of the story of a famous ascetic should not be underestimated, if only for the reason that it describes an ascetic practice which hardly fits in with modern western ideas of holiness. Some of the more striking forms of asceticism may have irritated the church authorities at the time, as we can see from canons outlawing itinerant ascetics. At times there were also...

The Concept of Self

Social psychologists gave attention to self-conception variables in their theories about interpersonal attraction and conformity behaviors, but with little concern for the concept of a self lying behind the socially formed identity of the person. Theorists and researchers have thus far considered the self almost entirely as a phenomenon of self-consciousness. Rogers (1961) was one of the first clinicians to attempt extensive research on self-conceptions and described the self as an organized configuration of perceptions which are admissible to awareness. While there is continued interest in the phenomenon of the self in both philosophical and psychological literature, there is little agreement as to the existence of a self beyond the variables of self-perception.


Some transnational Christian networks operate in literally dozens of nations, churches headquartered in one of the great missionary nations of the modern world, such as Brazil, Nigeria, the Congo, the Philippines, or South Korea. Particularly important are the AICs, the African-Initiated Churches, bodies of African foundation and worship style. In the early twentieth century, for instance, Nigeria produced the Aladura movement, with its emphasis on healing, prophecy, and charismatic worship. During the 1960s, London became the base for several Aladura churches, including the Celestial Church of Christ, Church of the Lord Aladura, the Cherubim and Seraphim, and Christ Apostolic Church. The Aladura tradition is powerfully represented by the Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG), founded in 1952, and which has a strong missionary outreach. At the last count, there are at least about four thousand parishes of the Redeemed Christian Church of God in Nigeria. In Europe the church is...


And brings power wholly within - has been rare and marginal within Christianity. Although we have noted instances when the mystical tendency has floated free in Christianity, we have seen that it is more common for it to shelter within the embrace of Church Christianity or Biblical Christianity. With regard to the former, we noted the rise of a sacramental mysticism in which the individual must destroy their own inner life in order to make way for Christ (taken within by way of the Eucharistic sacrament) and with regard to the latter, we have traced the rise of Charismatic and Charismatic-Evangelical forms of Christianity in which God's (external) Word remains authoritative, but is supplemented by the (inner) gift of the Holy Spirit. The latter combination of Biblical and Mystical Christianity has been the most successful of all forms of Christianity in the late 20th century, and the success of Charismatic Christianity worldwide has just about compensated for serious decline in other...


During the early middle ages, Europe developed complex and varied Christian cultures, and from about 1100 secular rulers, competing factions and inspired individuals continued to engender a diverse and ever-changing mix within Christian society. This volume explores the wide range of institutions, practices and experiences associated with the life of European Christians in the later middle ages. The clergy of this period initiated new approaches to the role of priests, bishops and popes, and developed an ambitious project to instruct the laity. For lay people, the practices of parish religion were central, but many sought additional ways to enrich their lives as Christians. Impulses towards reform and renewal periodically swept across Europe, led by charismatic preachers and supported by secular rulers. At the same time, Christians were often preoccupied and troubled by non-Christians within their own communities and on their borders. This book provides accessible accounts of these...

New Europeans

Given its history of empire and mission, France not surprisingly has an immigrant Christian presence, among Protestants as well as Catholics. The nation has around 1.1 million Protestants, just 2.2 percent of the population, but that figure includes the most active and enthusiastic charismatics, many of global South origins. Two-thirds of the country's Protestants are Reformed or Lutheran, old-stock churches with deep historic roots John Calvin was himself a Frenchman. In recent years, though, the fastest growing segment of Christianity has been evangelical and charismatic, and since 1950, their numbers have swelled from 50,000 to around 400,000. This is chiefly the result of immigration from Francophone Africa, but newcomers from Asia and the French Caribbean, les Antilles, have also contributed. Christians are especially numerous among the wave of African immigrants who have arrived over the last fifteen years and who have given such an African feel to sections like Ch teau Rouge,...

Immigrant Christians

The religious impact of immigration is unmistakable. Commenting on a successful African church, a correspondent in the British Guardian noted that London, the cynical capital of the unbelieving English, must be one of the least religious places in the world. Of those who chose to answer the census question, 1,130,616 Londoners (15.8 of the total) said they had 'no religion'. Yet, as the city continues to be Africanized, so it is being evangelized, chiefly by charismatic and Pentecostal churches. Though the absolute numbers may be small, the potential for future growth is immense, as second- and third-generation

How to Proceed

Undue focus on the individual sayings within the Jesus tradition. Consequently the 'new' questers saw the way forward in terms of identifying criteria which would provide a 'critically assured' core of Jesus' teaching. The question whether Q (or Q1) gives immediate access to the historical Jesus (just as first questers were able to rely on Mark) has not been regularly asked (or not asked enough) in the current revival of interest in Q. Of contemporary questers, Theissen has been overconfident that the primary level of Jesus tradition sought to inculcate the practice of charismatic vagrancy.6 Funk is equally sure that the quest should begin with the parables of Jesus ('In the beginning was the parable') and that recognition of the authenticity of aphorisms should depend on whether they cohered with Jesus' own parable tradition.7 Benedict Viviano works from the thirty-one overlapping sayings in Q and Mark to reconstruct a surprisingly complete picture.8 In contrast, Sanders has stressed...

Life and Influences

With the publication of Postscript, Kierkegaard intended to bring his literary production to a close and to seek ordination. Events transpired, however, which led him to abandon this plan and continue writing. In 1840 a satirical journal, The Corsair, had been founded by Meir Aaron Goldschmidt (1819-1887). Political satire was new in Denmark, and The Corsair was regarded by many as scandalous and offensive. Goldschmidt's admiration for Kierkegaard had resulted in the latter initially being spared the attentions of the journal. P. L. Moller (1814-1865), however, one of The Corsair's regular contributors, published a critique of Stages on Life's Way in which he accused Kierkegaard of exploiting his unhappy relationship with Regine for literary purposes. Outraged, Kierkegaard responded by publishing an article in the newspaper The Fatherland, in which he linked Moller with The Corsair, thereby destroying Moller's hopes of being appointed to the Chair of Aesthetics at Copenhagen...

The Goals

In the midst of mounting secularism and odd religious sects, Mr. Hunt has issued a courageous call for a much-needed return to Biblical Christianity. ne Most of what he says is very accurate and needed to be said. He has recognized the seemingly heretical implications of statements made by some recognized charismatic leaders and non-charismatic self-esteem advocates, and his description of biblical Christianity is generally accurate. Mr. Hunt's books, however, raise an important series of questions. What are the central doctrines of biblical Christianity How do we know what those doctrines are How do we decide who is within the Church and who is outside Where do we draw the lines Who decides Can individual Christian writers declare other Christians to be heretical If so, on what basis

Tongues of Fire

The charismatic movement is the most rapidly growing element of Christianity today. Pentecostalism in its various forms is now the largest single Christian group apart from Catholicism and outnumbers the sum total of all other forms of Protestantism. Although numerical estimates of its strength are unreliable, the movement grew from ground zero in 1900 to at least half a billion in 2000. Its historical origins and fundamental beliefs locate it firmly within the bounds of Protestantism. Yet its astonishing growth, spiritual vitality, and capacity to adapt to local situations are forcing Protestantism to review both its center and its limits. The numerical growth of Pentecostalism, primarily among the urban poor and the socially marginalized of Asia, Africa, and South America, is transforming Protestantism. The city of Lagos in the former British west African colony of Nigeria is widely regarded as the Pentecostal capital of the world despite the fact that Pentecostalism in that nation...

Imperial Encounters

African and Asian attempts to resist colonialism bolstered images of fanaticism. British concepts of Islam owed much to demon-figures like the Mahdi who led a successful revolt in the Sudan of the 1880s, and to the dervishes the British encountered a few years later in the same territory. Already by the end of the nineteenth century, Europe's popular stereotypes of Islam included visions of charismatic bearded prophets driving their brainwashed followers to massacre infidels. When the British encountered anti-colonial resistance in Somaliland a few years later, the movement was symbolized by the religious and military leader Mohammed bin Abdullah Hassan, popularly labeled the Mad Mullah. The nickname suggests much about European attitudes why, apart from insanity or religious fanaticism, would a people choose to resist the blessings of imperial rule

Dialogic Islam

It is, of course, true that diverse factors beyond the immediate charisma of the Ayatollah had paved the way for his return there was the extraordinary arrogance of a Westernising Shah with his contempt for the role of traditional Islam there was the corruption of an lite ruling class there was the failure to see the danger of the developing equation between secularisation and modernisation there was a profound underestimation of Islam's perceived role as the natural counterweight to an imposed Western tyranny.175 But none of these factors in themselves explains the almost preternatural appeal of Khomeini as man, Imam and Spiritual Leader. 'The force of Khomeini's preaching was its uncompromising rejection of everything secular and everything emanating from the West.'176 This rejection had a magnificently simple appeal for very large numbers among both the 'ulam ' and the lower middle classes who, in various ways, had missed out on the prosperity brought to Iran under the Shah....


Harold Cohen, a charismatic catholic priest in New Orleans, pointed this out, just after the election. The majority of Americans voted against the pro-life candidate (Bush). So in effect the U.S. has chosen death instead of life, and cursing instead of blessing. Not discouraged he added We don't know what the future holds, but we know Who holds the future

Fragments and Ghosts

The family works hard to accommodate themselves to, and even participate in, the father's conversion. They denounce worldliness, pray constantly, and intensify their awareness of all spiritual matters. Involving themselves deeply in a small non-denominationalist, charismatic country church (one which had a long history of ferocious but problematic leadership), the family falls deeper into the grips of fanaticism, and the teenage girl is forced to repress and hide her emerging sexuality and personality in order to dodge the label of evil. She is sexually abused and simultaneously blamed for that abuse, denied basic human dignity during adolescence, sent away and punished severely. She is able to look back on these years from her perch of adulthood and conclude that although religion had its attractions, she is better off without it.


Christian fundamentalism is the most active, exclusive, intolerant, and conservative wing of evangelicalism, both theologically and politically.71 The popularity of what is also known as the New Christian Right (NCR) is, in part, due to its near monopoly of Christian satellite, television and radio stations and programmes the espousal, within its charismatic wing, of a success oriented 'health and wealth' gospel and its propensity to provide simplistic, infallible, biblical panaceas for the world's problems.72

John Rogerson

The defeat of Napoleon in 1815 marked the end, from a British point of view, of a significant episode in world history that had apparently been foretold in the Bible. According to Daniel 7 23-7, a fourth kingdom would arise which would war against the saints of the Most High for 'a time, two times, and half a time', after which it would be destroyed and be replaced by the everlasting kingdom of the saints of the Most High. British Protestant interpretation of Daniel 7 identified the fourth kingdom with the papacy, and its war against the saints of the Most High with the persecution of movements such as the Waldensians and the Hussites. On the view that 'time'meant a year of360 days, the period of domination of the fourth kingdom would be 1,260 years, and depending on when it was believed that papal power began to be exercised in an anti-Christian way, the ending of the period of 1,260 years could be seen as 1798, when the French republican army took possession of the city of Rome.1...

The Power Of Charisma

The Power Of Charisma

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