Creator And Creation

As early as the second century, Irenaeus stated that the Christian profession of faith should begin with 'God the Creator, who made the heaven and the earth, and all things that are therein', and should demonstrate that 'there is nothing either above him or after him; and that, influenced by no one but of his own free will, he created all things, since he is the only God, the only Lord, the only Creator, the only Father, alone containing all things, and himself commanding all things into existence'. The urgent need to combat the Gnostics' dismissal of material creation as defective and as the work of an inferior 'divine power' stimulated Irenaeus to present a Christian understanding of the entire cosmos: it is God's own creation (Adversus Haereses, 2. 1. 1).

In 325, the First Council of Nicaea articulated the Church's belief in God, the 'maker of all things, visible and invisible' (DH 125; ND 7). The First Council of Constantinople I (381) expanded this profession of faith to call the one and true God 'maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible' (DH 150; ND 12). This specified in greater detail how God alone is the source of all things, without exception. These two councils did no more than sum up what the Bible and early Christian writers had been saying about creation.

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