Early reform efforts by Bishops. The reforming spirit captures the Papacy. The rising power of the reformed papacy. Hildebrand exalts the papacy. Hildebrand as Pope Gregory VII. Hildebrand's successors continue the battle for reform. The reform movement spreads in various countries. The improvement in various aspects of the morals of the laity. The Papacy attains its height as a legislative and administrative structure. Great Popes of the twelfth century. Innocent III. The slow decline of the Papacy. Why the decline of the Papacy? The Papacy goes into captivity at Avignon. Summary.
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