The varied development of the monastic ideal in Europe. First hints of awakenings. The Cluny movement. The rising tide of monastic life. The monasteries gain special privileges. The Cistercian movement. Bernard of Clairvaux. Other twelfth century monastic movements. The coming of the Friars. The Franciscans. The Dominicans. The Carmelites. The Augustinian Hermits. Other mendicant orders. The friars multiply and clash with the secular clergy. Other thirteenth and fourteenth century monastic movements. Summary.
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