The Emperor And The Church

1. Cross-references ro the actions of emperors and to church councils discussed in Chapters II-XVII are not given in what follows: the relevant passages can easily be located through the table of contents and the indices.

2. Matthews, Ammianus (1989), gives the best, fullest, and most recent exposition of this evaluation of the historian. For some reservations, see 'Ammianus Marcellinus and His World,' CP 88 (1993), 55-70.

3. See, briefly, 'Literary Convention, Nostalgia, and Reality in Ammianus Marcellinus,' Reading the Past in Late Antiquity, ed. G. W. Clarke (Rushcutters Bay, 1990), 59-92, at 75-82.

4. Ammianus 15.7.6-10, esp. 7: 'Athanasium episcopum eo tempore apud Alexandriam ultra professionem altius se efferenteai scitarique conatum externa, ut prodidere rumores assidui, coetus in unum quaesitus eiusdem loci multorum— synodus ut appellant—removit a sacramento quod obtinebat.

5. E. D. Hunt, 'Christians and Christianity in Ammianus Marcellinus,' Classical Quarterly, N.S. 35 (1985), 186-200.

7. 'Christians and Pagans in the Reign of Constantius.' L'Église et l'empire au 1W siècle (Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique 34, 1989), 303-337, at 313-321. On Constantius' appointments in the West in the 350s, see R. O. Edbrooke, 'The Visit of Constantius II to Rome in 357 and Its Effect on the Pagan Roman Senatorial Aristocracy,' American Journal of Philology 97 (1976), 40-61.

8. Constans appointed the following western pagans as ordinary consuls: L. Aradius Valerius Proculus (340), M. Maecius Furius Baburius Caecilianus Placidus (343), Vulcacius Rufinus (347), and Aconius Catullinus (349). Ulpius Limenius, consul in 349 and praefectus praetorio et urbis from 347 to 349, Hermogenes, who held the latter office in 349/50 (Chr. min. 1.68/9), and Anatolius, who served Constans as praetorian prefect of Illyricum c. 344, appear to be easterners who decided to go to the West for the sake of their careers, perhaps because they were pagans: see A. Chastagnol, 'Remarques sur les sénateurs orientaux au IVe siècle,' Acta Antiqua 24 (1976), 341-356, at 348; 'La carrière sénatoriale du Bas-Empire (depuis Diocletien),' Epigrapa e ordine senatorio 1 (Tituli 4,1982, pub. 1984), 167-194, at 181; T. D. Barnes, L'Église et l'empire au IVr siècle (1989), 320 n. 93. On the career of Q. Flavius Maesius Egnatius Lollianus, consul in 355, see PLRE 1.512-514, with 'Two Senators under Constantine,'/RS 65 (1975), 40-49, at 40.

9. R. von Haehling, Die Religionszugehörigkeit der hohen Amtsträger des Römischen Reiches seit Constant ins I. Alleinherrschaft bis zum Ende der Theodosianischen Dynastie (Bonn, 1978), 61-63.

10. Vogler, Constance (1979), 144.

11. Despite his title, R. Staats, 'Das Kaiserreich 1871-1918 und die Kirchengeschichtsschreibung,' ZKG 92 (1981), 69-96, has nothing to say on the important topic of how the political and cultural background affectcd historians of the Christian church. One contrast seems especially significant. Although Jacob Burckhardt uses the term 'Reichskirche' in the second edition of his classic book about Constantine and his age, published in Germany in 1880 (Zeit Constantins des Grossen2 [Leipzig, 1880], 264 = ed. B. Wyss [Bern, 1950], 449: 'Constantin wollte eine Reichskirche, und zwar aus politischen Gründen'), the sentence which contains it is absent from the corresponding passage of the first edition, which was published in Switzerland shortly after the failed revolutions of 1848 ([Basle, 1853], 412).

Even in the second edition, however, it should be noted that Burckhardt immediately went on to observe that the church of the fourth century was able to challenge the political power of the emperors. Edward Gibbon's view had been similar: 'the distinction of the spiritual and temporal powers, which had never been imposed on the free spirit of Greece and Rome, was introduced and confirmed by the legal establishment of Christianity,' and as a result 'a secret conflict between the civil and ecclesiastical jurisdictions embarrassed the operations of the Roman government' (Decline and Fall, chap. 20 [2.333/4 Buryl).

12. For example, K. Aland, 'Kaiser und Kirche von Konstantin bis Byzanz,' Kircbengeschichtliche Entwürfe (Gütersloh, 1960), 257-279, reprinted in G. Ruhbach, ed., Die Kirche angesichts der konstantinischen Wende (Wege der Forschung 306 [Darmstadt, 1976]), 43-73; W. Schneemelcher, Kirche und Staat im 4. Jahrhundert (Bonner Akademische Reden 37 [Bonn, 19701), 11,13,17,19, also reprinted in Die Kirche (1976), 122-148; Girardet, Kaisergericht (1975), 1: 'Eine der Folgen der "Konstaninischen Wende" ist die "kaiserliche Synodalgewalt."' In a later essay, however, Schneemelcher argues that it is wrong to speak of a 'Staatskirche' before 380 ('Das konstantinische Zeitalter: Kritisch-historische Bemerkungen zu einem modernen Schlagwort,' Kleronomia 6 11974], 37-60).

13. For an influential statement of this view, see O. Seeck, Geschichte des Untergangs der antiken Welt 32 (Stuttgart, 1921), 415: 'Hatte er sich anfangs dem Konzil ganz fernhalten wollen, so schien es ihm jetzt nach den Ereignissen von Antiochia für das Gelingen seines Friedenswerkes durchaus erforderlich, dass er persönlich das Präsidium führte.'

14. So, recently, W. Fl. C. Frend, The Rise of Christianity (Philadelphia, 1984), 527.

15. E. Schwartz, Kaiser Constantin und die christliche Kirche2 (Leipzig, 1936), 127: 'die Form der Verhandlung war keine andere als die eines vom Kaiser abgehaltenen Schiedsgerichts.' Similarly, Girardet, Kaisergericht (1975), 67/8, on the Council of Tyre in 335: 'der iudex in diesem Prozess ist Konstantin, die Bischöfe sind seine consiliarii.' More recently, Girardet has applied the same analysis to the Council of Rome in 313, to which Constantine referred the appeal of the Donatists: 'er konstituierte das kaiserliche consilium als concilium, die Bischofsversammlung von Rome Ende September/Anfang Oerober 313 als die erste Reichssynode' ('Das Reichskonzil von Rom (313)—Urteil, Einspruch, Folgen,' Historia 41 [1992], 104-116, at 106).

16. Kelly, Creeds' (1972), 212. A footnote adds that Schwartz 'consistently exaggerated the degree of the Church's absorption in Constantine's "Reich."'

17. J. Gaudemet, La formation du droit seculier et du droit de l'église au ¡Y et Y siècles (Paris, 1957), 179-181. However, for a subtle argument which finds signs of incipient Caesaropapism toward the end of Constantius' reign, sec C. Piétri, 'La politique de Constance II: Un premier "césaropapisme" ou Vimitatio Constatini L'Église et l'empire au IY siècle (Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique 34 [Vandoeuvres, 1989]), 113-172.

18. For German doubrs about the aptness of the term, see K. Baus, Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte 2.1 (Freiburg, Basle, and Vienna, 1973), 91-93 ( = 89/90 in the English translation by A. Biggs (New York, 1980J). Significantly, the volume itself has the title 'Die Reichskirche nach Konsrantin dem Grossen.'

20. Eusebius, VC 4.42, cf. B. H. Warmington, 'The Sources of Some Constantinian Documents in Eusebius' Church History and Life of Constantine,' Studia Patristica 18.1 (1985), 93-98.

21. C. J. Hefele and H. Leclercq, Histoire des conciies 1.1 (Paris, 1907); H. Marot, 'Conciles anténiceens et conciles oecuméniques,' Le concile et les conciles (Chevetogne, 1960), 19-43. For an assessment of the impact of Constantine on conciliar practise, see W. de Vries, 'Die Struktur der Kirche gemäss dem ersten Konzil von Nikaia und seiner Zeit,' Wegzeichen: Festgabe zum 60. Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. Hermenegild AL Biedermann OSA (Würzburg, 1971), 55-81. He concludes that 'die bisher verfolgte, aber freie Kirche, wird langsam zur "Reichskirch e.'"

23. The term 'ecumenical council' is first attested in 338: Eusebius, VC 3.6.1; Athanasius, Apol. c. Ar. 7.2. H. Chadwick, 'The Origin of the Title "Oecumenical Council,'"/TS, N.S. 23 (1972), 132-135, argues that the term was used in 325 itself and 'had some association in the first instance with the church's plea for exemption from tax'—and he draws the inference that the decisions of the Council of Nicaea were so widely accepted because it had succeeded in 'obtaining important fiscal relief.'

24. J. Gaudemet, Formation du droit (1957), 144, citing Augustine, De baptismo 2.3.4 (CSEL 51.178).

25. The letters of Basil of Caesarea appear to indicate how the system of twice-yearly provincial councils worked in practise: a council met each year in June at Phargamous (Ep. 95), while one on 7 September in Caesarea celebrated the martyr Eupsychius (Epp. 100,142).

26. See EOMIA 2.50-53,153,172/3, 312-315. For the accidental nature of the earliest collections of canon law, see E. Schwartz, 'Die Kanoncssammlungen der alten Rcichskirche,' Zeitschrift der Savigny Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, Kanonistische Abteilung 25 (1936), 1-114, reprinted in his Gesammelte Schriften 4 (Berlin, 1960), 159-275. His conclusions may need partial modification if the Council of Gangra met c. 355, as argued in 'The Date of the Council of Gangra,'/T.S, N.S. 40 (19S9), 121-124.

27. Optatus, App. 5, p. 203.23-25 Ziwsa (314); R jfinus, HE 10.5 = Gelasius of Cyzicus, HE 2.27.10 (325)—from Gelasius of Caesarea.

29. F. Millar, The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977), esp. chaps. 7-9.

30. As does Girardet, Kaisergericht (1975), 60-62.

31. As stated by Girardet, Kaisergericht (1975), 63-65, 67.

32. Eusebius, HE 7.30.19/20, cf. F. Millar, 'Paul of Samosata, Zenobia, and Aurelian: The Church, Local Culture, and Political Allegiance in Third-Century Syria,' JRS 61 (1971), 1-17.

33. Despite Girardet, Kaisergericht (1975), 66-75.

34. CTh 1.27.1 (?318); Const. Sinn. 1 (333), cf. Constantine (1981), 51, 312 nn. 78-82. For the modern bibliography on this contentious topic, see now S. Elm, "An Alleged Book-Theft in Fourrh-Century Egypt: P. Lips. 43,' Studia Patristica 18.2 (1989), 209-217. P. Lips. 43 provides an example of episcopal jurisdiction in a case concerning the theft of some books. The name of the bishop is Plusianus: since the editor of the papyrus (U. Wilcken) dates the papyrus to the fourth century and gives its provenance as 'Hermupolis(?),' there is a chance that he may be none other than Plusianus, the bishop of Lycopoiis, who was alleged to have burned the house of Arsenius on Athanasius* orders (Sozomenus, HE 2.25.12, cf. Camplani, lottere [1989], 303).

35. Sozomenus, HE 1.9.6; CJ 1.13.1 (316); CT/; 4.7.1 = CJ 1.13.2 (321).

36. J. F. Matthews, 'Gesandtschaft/ RAC10 (1978), 653-685, esp. 679.

38. CTh 16.2.12 (my own deliberately free translation). The subscription reads: 'data epistula viiii kal(endas) Octob(res), acc(cpta) non(is) Octob(ribus) Arbirione et Lolliano cons(ulibu)s.' Seeck, Regesten (1919), 11, construed the phrase data epistula as a reference to a letter of the praetorian prefect forwarding the emperor's instructions.

39. The execution of Priscillian is not an exception, since he was not a validly ordained bishop: see K. M. Girardet, 'Trier 385: Der Prozess gegen die Priszillianer,' Chiron 4 (1974), 577-608, and (briefly) 'Religion and Society in the Reign of Theodosius,' Grace, Politics, and Desire: Essays on Augustine (Calgary, 1990), 157-175, at 163.

40. Chapter XII n. 53; Chapter XIV; Chapter XVI, at nn. 54-57.

41. K. F. Hagel, Kirche und Kaisertum in Lehre und Leben des Athanasius (Diss. Tübingen, pub. Leipzig, 1933), 15-77, esp. 47-58. See also L. W. Barnard, 'Athanasius and the Roman State,* Studies in Church History and Patristics (ANAAEKTA BAATAAiîN 26 [Thessaloniki, 19781), 312-328, reprinted from Latomus 36 (1977), 422-437: this article includes material already published in 'Athanase et les empereurs Constantin et Constance,' Politique et théologie (1974), 127-143.

42. J. Gaudemet, Formation du droit (1957), 181/2.

43. R. Klein, 'Zur Glaubwürdigkeit historischer Aussagen des Bischofs Athanasius von Alexandria über die Religionspolitik des Kaisers Constantius II,' Studia Patristica 17.3 (1982), 996-1017, at 1002-1010, argues that this is yet another invented quotation and that the sentiments are those of Athanasius rather than Ossius. It would not much affect the point at issue here if he were correct, but Athanasius claims to have read the letter (Hist. Ar. 43.4).

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