The Condemnation Of 349 And Its Context

1. The letters which Athanasius wrote for the Easters of 341 and 342 survive in the Syriac corpus of the Festal Letters (13, 3), which also contains notifications of the date of the Easters of 345 and 346 written in 344 and 345 respectively (17, 18). The absence of other festal letters for the period of Athanasius' second exile by no means proves that he wrote none (App. 1).

6. One pair of names, consecutive in the document to which they subscribed (Apol. c. Ar. 78.7 Nos. 5, 6), belongs to joint bishops of a single see—

Ammonianus and Tyrannus of Antinoopolis (Festal Letter 19.10).

7. Letter to Serapion (in the collection of Festal Letters), cf. App. 1, at nn. 47-51.

8. CSEL 65.76/7 Nos. 34, 41, 42, 52, 53, 58: for their known careers, see Feder, Studien II (1910), 79-86. To judge from his name, Ammonius, whose see is nor specified (No. 66), should a'.so he an Egyptian: he could be the Melitian bishop of Diospolis Superior, cf. Camplani, Lettere (1989), 296/7.

9. L. T. Lefort, CSCO 151 = Scriptores Coptici 20 (Louvain, 1955), 28.30-29.14, 33.32-34.16, 39.28-36, 41-45 (French translation).

10. Ptolemacus of Thmuis and Apollonius of Oxyrhynchus (Syn. 12.3; Epiphanius, Pan. 73.26.6, cf. Ubellus precwn 100 [CSEL 35. 36]).

11. Camplani, Lettere (1989), 262-282.

12. P. J. Sijpestein and K. A. Worp, Zwei Landlisten ans dent Hcrmupolites (P. Landlisten) [Studia Amstelodamensia 7 [Zutphen, 1978]): on the date, R. A. Bagnall, The Date of the Hermopolite Land Registers: A Review Article,' Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 16 (1979), 159-168; W. van Gucht, 'Some Egyptian Bishops and the Date of P. Landlisten,' Atti del XVII Congresso internationale di papirologia (Naples, 1984), 1135-1140.

13. A. K. Bowman, 'Landholding in the Hermopolite Nome in the Fourth Century A.D.,'/RS 75 (1985), 137-163.

14. P. J. Sijpestein and K. A. Worp, Landlisten (1978), G 298, 305, 512; F 147, 510, 519, 731; Anh. 50, cf. W. van Gucht, Atti (1984), 1135-1140; T. D. Barnes, JTS, N.S. 42 (1991), 729. The appointment of Arion as bishop of Antinoopolis in place of Ammonius and Tyrannus is approved by Athanasius in Festal Letter 19.10: he added his name to the synodica! letter of the western bishops at Serdica after Athanasius returned to Alexandria (ApoL c. Ar. 49.3 No. 195: Opitz on 129 duly noted the other evidence). Priests appear at G 552; F 771, 809, 818; and one entry relates to church propety (G 534).

15. H. I. Bell, V. Martin, E. G. Turner, and D. van Berchem, The Abinnaeus Archive: Papers of a Roman Officer in the Reign of Constantius II (Oxford, 1962), cf. T. D. Barnes, The Career of Abinnaeus,' Phoenix 39 (1985), 368-374. A further papyrus from the archive, nor included in that collection, refers to 'the priest of the village': see Santmelbuch 11380, published by R. Rémondon, 'Un papyrus inédit des archives d'Abinnaeus (P. Berlin inv. 11624),* Journal of Juristic Papyrology 18 (1974), 33-37. On the other hand, P. Abinn. 65 = P. Geneva 60 docs not belong to the archive: see H. Cadell, 'P. Genève 60, B.G. V. II 456 et le problème du bois en Êgypte,' Chronique d'Égypie 51 (1976), 331-348.

16. P. Abinn. 1, 44. On the chronology of Abinnaeus' movements, sec Phoenix 39 (1985), 369/70. Valacius is attested as dux in 340 and perhaps in 339: P. Oxy. 3793, with J. R. Rea, Oxyrhynchus Papyri 55 (London, 1988), 63/4, 224 (commentary on P. Oxy. 3820.14). He may well, therefore, have arrived in Egypt in 338 with Philagrius and Arsacius (Chapter IV, at n. 43).

17. P. Abinn. 2. The draft petition of 340 or 341 (which has corrections and variants in Abinnaeus' own hand) and this letter from Valacius are the only documents in the archive to be written in Latin.

21. As suggested in Phoenix 39 (1985), 373/4, on the basis of a petition to Abinnaeus dated 11 February 351 by one who describes himself as 4a deacon of the catholic church' (P. Abinn. 55).

23. Sozomenus, HE 2.31; Index 11. The Life of Antony 69-71 records the visit, but includes no reference to Athanasius.

24. Vita Antonii 91: Antony received new from Athanasius the pallium which he bequeathed him.

25. Sancti Pachomii Vita Printa 120 (ed. F. Halkin, Sancti Pachomii Vitae Graecae [Subsidia Hagiographica 19, 1932], 77/8).

26. PG 25.524-533 = Opitz 303-308, cf. M. Tetz, 'Zur Biographie des Athanasius von Alexandrien,' ZKG 90 (1979), 304-338, at 325-329.

27. CSEL 65.142.17-19: 'igitur ad tollendum ex episcopatu Fotinum, qui ante bien-nium iam in Mediolanensi synodo erat haereticus damnatus, ex plurimis provinciis congregantur sacerdotes.'

28. CSEL 65.142.20-145.4. Ursacius and Valens composed and submitted their letter to Julius in Rome itself {CSEL 65.143.4-6, 145.6/7; Hist. Ar. 26.1, 29.2, 44.5). Against the traditional view that the council of 347 met in Sirmium or Milan, see App. 10. Bishops of Rome made it a principle not to attend councils of bishops held in other cities: M. Wojtowytsch, Papsttum und Konzile von den Anfängen bis zu Leo I (440-461): Studien zur Entstellung der Überordnung des Papstes über Konzile (Päpste und Papsttum 17 [Stuttgart, 1981]).

30. The other evidence is entirely consistent with the hypothesis that Paulinus became bishop of Trier in 347: see Chapter VII n. 12.

32. On the interpretation of this difficult passage, see App. 8.

33. Eugenius of Nicaea attended the Council of Antioch which deposed Athanasius in 349 (Sozomenus, HE 4.8.4), while Cecropius was translated from Laodicea in Phrygia to replace Amphion, who is attested as bishop of Nicomedia in 343 (CSEL 65.48.12-15), allegedly as a reward for intrigues against the orthodox (Letter to the Bishops of Egypt and Libya 7; Hist. Ar. 74.5). He attended the Council of Sirmium in 351 (CSEL 65.170.6) and died in the earthquake of 24 August 358 (Sozomenus, HE 4.16.5).

34. Sozomenus, HE 4.8.3/4, with a reference back to 3.20.1 (Chapter X n. 17).

35. Sozomenus, HE 4.7.3-8.2. Hence the council has often been dated to 351 or later: Hanson, Search (1988), 325, 338 (351 or possibly 352); A. Martin, Sources chrétiennes 317 (Paris, 1985), 184 n. 59 (351 or 352); Brennecke, Hilarius (1984), 117-121 (352); K. M. Girardet, 'Constance II, Athanase, et l'Édit d'Arles (353): A propos de la politique religieuse de I'empereur Constance 11,' Politique et théologie (1974), 63-91, at 67, 82 (probably 352); C. Piétri, 'La question d'Athanase vue de Rome (338-360),' Politique et théologie (1974), 93-126, at 119; Roma (1976), 237 (355); Opitz on 68 (356 at the earliest).

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