2. PLRE 1.796; Consuls (1987), 230/1. Theodoretus may, however, have conflated the embassy of the winter of 343/4 with a later one (below, at nn. 12-15).
3. Athanasius dates this creed three years later than the creed taken to Trier in 342, that is, two years later on inclusive reckoning (Syn. 25.1, 26.1, cf. Chapter VII, at nn. 23-27).
4. Kelly, Creeds' (1972), 279, cf. Brennecke, Hilarius (1984), 53-56.
5. On the theology of Photinus, see M. Simonetti, Studi sull'Arianesimo (Rome, 1965), 135-159; L. A. Speller, 'New Light on the Photinians: The Evidence of Ambrosiaster,' )TS, N.S. 34 (1983), 88-113. He appears to have become bishop of Sirmium shortly after the Council of Serdica, when the attested Euterius a Pannoniis was presumably bishop of the city (CSEL 65.137 No. 40, cf. Feder^ Studien II [Vienna, 1910], 39).
8. App. 9. The date of the council is deduced from Libcrius' statement in his letter to Constantius, apparently in the winter of 353/4, that it occurred ante annos octo (CSEL 65.91.19)—though 'VHP should perhaps be emended to 'Villi' to allow for inclusive reckoning.
10. CSEL 65.91.15-23 (Liberius in 353/4); 142.17-19 (from Hilary's connecting narrative); 144.4-14 = Apol. c. Ar. 58.3/4 (the libellus submitted by Ursacius and Valens to Julius in 347).
13. As it was by E. Schwartz, 'Zur Kirchengeschichte des vierten Jahrhunderts,' ZNW 34 (1935), 129-213, at 139 n. 1, reprinted in his Gesammelte Schriften 4 (Berlin, 1960), 1-110, at 13 n. 1; Opitz on 193.14. Girardet, Kaisergericht (1975), 145, accepts 'den sachlichen Kern dieser Mitteilungen,' but denies that Socrates' actual quotation can be authentic. Most recently, Hanson, Search (1988), 307/8, rejects the letter on two grounds: first, that Constans was not so irresponsible as to 'plunge the Empire into civil war... for the sake of a few bishops'; second, that Athanasius' silence 'tells against authenticity.'
14. Rufinus, HE 10.20 (986.20-23): 'scribit ad fratrem pro certo se comperisse, quod sacerdos dei summi Athanasius iniuste fugas et exilia pateretur. hunc recte faceret si absque ulla molestia loco suo restitueret; si id nollet, sibi curac futurum, ut ipse id impleret regni eius intima penetrans et poenas dignissimas de auctoribus sceleris sumens.'
15. Philostorgius, HE 3.12; Theodoretus, HE 2.8.53-55.
16. Theodoretus, HE 2.8.53: 'the letter contained not only exhortation and advice, but also a threat suitable to a pious emperor.'
18. Philostorgius, HE 3.12: 'Athanasius has come to me and proved that the bishopric at Alexandria belongs to him: let him recover it through you, since he will [otherwise] recover it by the force of my arms.'
20. On these men, see briefly 'Christians and Pagans in the Reign of Constantius,' L'Église et l'empire au fV* siècle (Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique 34 IVandocuvres, 1989]), 301-337, at 313. Polemius and Datianus were ordinary consuls in 338 and 358, while Taurus and Florentius held the fasces together in 361. For Thalassius, see above, at n. 7; Chapter VII, at nn. 15-16; XIII, at n. 2.
21. Consuls (1987), 226/7. The only strictly contemporary attestation of this imperial consulate from the territory of Constans is a pair of gold multiples from the mint of Siscia which depict Constantius and Constans in consular robes with an attendant holding a palm branch between them (R/C 8.356, Siscia Nos. 105,106, cf. 341/2). At Rome and in Italy the dating formula post consulatum Amanti et Albini persisted until at least September—and there is no contemporary document from the last three months of the year.
22. Girardet, Kaisergericht (1975), 150, puts the summons to the court of Constans in summer 345 and Athanasius' visit to Rome early in 346. That seems too early.
23. Socrates, HE 2.23.15-32, offers a fuller text: it seems that Athanasius has omitted part of the letter out of modesty (Chapter III n. 39).
24. The former was the route taken by Germanicus and Lucius Verus; for the routes of pilgrims in the fourth century, see E. D. Hunt, Holy Land Pilgrimage in the Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 1982), 52 (map). Observe also that, after his deportation by Philippus, Socrates states that Paul of Constantinople went from Thessalonica to Italy by way of Corinth (HE 2.17.12). Athanasius' later correspondence with
Epictetus, the bishop of Corinth, may reflect an acquaintance made in 346 (Chapter XVII, at n. 74), but his visit to Adrianople should be assigned to 344 (Chapter IX).
27. Gregory of Nazianzus, Orat. 21.29—comparing the event to Christ's entry into Jerusalem, cf. A. K. Bowman, Egypt after the Pharaohs, 332 B.C.-A.D. 642 (Berkeley, 1986), 217. It should be noted that Gregory appears to conflate the return of 346 with those of 337 and 362 (27-29).
28. On the career of Marcellus after 345, see M. Tetz, 'Zur Theologie des Markell von Ancyra. III,' ZKG 83 (1972), 145-194; 'Markellianer und Athanasius,' ZW 64 (1975), 75-121. The Council of Sirmium which is alleged to have condemned Marcellus in 347 or 348 is unhistorical (App. 10).
29. CSEL 65.147.10-22 (a narrative fragment of Hilary).
30. Socrates, HE 2.23.42; Sozomenus, HE 3.24.3. A return to Ancyra in 344 or 345 is postulated by Hanson, Search (1988), 219/20, with appeal to E. Schwartz, ZNW 34 (1935), 142; V. C. De Clercq, Ossius of Cordova: A Contribution to the History of the Constantinian Period (Washington, 1954), 417/8.
31. Chapter XVII.
32. Epiphanius, Pan. 72.11, cf. M. Tetz, ZNW 67 (1973), 75-121.
33. Epiphanius, Pan. 72.1.1, cf. EOM/A 1.30, 50,51 ^the list of bishops who attended the Council of Ancyra in 314).
34. To the period after the Council of Serdica belong the majority of the works, for which modern scholarship has established Marcellus' authorship—the Sermo rnaior de fide, the Expositio fidei, the Contra Theopaschitas/Epistula ad Liberium, and the De Incarnatione et contra Arianos (CPG 2803-2806): see F. Scheidweiler, 'Wer ist der Verfasser des sog. Sermo Maior de Fide?' BZ 47 (1954), 333-357; M. Tetz, 'Zur Theologie des Markell von Ancyra,' ZKG 75 (1964), 217-270; 79 (1968), 3-42; 83 (1972), 145-194; J. T. Lienhard, 'Marcellus of Ancyra in Modern Research,' Theological Studies 43 (1982), 486-503; 'Basil of Caesarea, Marcellus of Ancyra, and "Sabcllius,"' Church History 58 (1989), 157-167.
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