The Intervention Of Constans

1. Chapter X. Lucifer of Caralis depicts Constantius as saying that he allowed the return of Athanasius at the insistence of Constans precisely because 'timui ne inter nos bella fuissent orta' (De Athanasio 1.29.28).

2. Chapter XIII.

3. App. 3. The later additions to the first eighteen chapters comprise a reference to the death of Magnentius (7.3b) and a general description of disorder in the church everywhere which includes an allusion to the exile of Egyptian bishops in 357 (13, cf. 28.1).

4. The passage is translated and discussed above in Chapter IV, at nn. 28-29.

5. Chapter II.

6. The procedures and techniques of argumentation taught by Greek rhetors in the Roman Empire are well described by D. A. Russell, Greek Declamation (Cambridge, 1983), esp. 40-73.

7. Quintilian states the norm in lapidary fashion: 'ordine ipso narrationem sequitur confirmatio' (Inst. Orat. 4.3.1). For narratio as a standard element in speeches, see Rhetorica ad Herennium 1.12-16; Cicero, De Inventione 1.27-30; Orator 122; Quintilian, Inst. Orat. 4.2, with K. Barwick, 'Die Gliederung der narratio in der rhetorischen Theorie und ihre Bedeutung für die Geschichte des antiken Romans,' Hermes 63 (1928), 261-287.

8. The manuscripts have Kpiomvo? ô Tfjç n<rrdßwi>: the form is paralleled by the civitas Patavi found in late antique maps: see K. Miller, Itineraria Romana: Römische Reisewege an der Hand der Tabula Peutingeriana (Berlin, 1916), 259.

9. All manuscripts and editors read Aiouûoios ô èv ArjiSL, and the bishop's see is normally identified as the small north Italian town of Laus Pompeia: so C. H. Turner, EOMIA 1.557; Opitz on 281.14. But it is linguistically implausible to identify a 'Leis' (where the emphatic vowel is represented by the Greek eta) with the modern Lodi: all attested ancient forms of the name of the town exhibit the o-vowel which survives in the modern name (K. Miller, ltineraria [1916], 204). Feder, Studien II (1910), 43, saw that the Dionysius in Athanasius should be identical with the dionisius ab Acaia de Elida who subscribed the synodical letter of the western bishops at Serdica in 343 (CSEL 65.138 No. 48). Hence the name of the see ought to be emended from AtilSl to "HXUk. The bishop of Elis presumably had business at the imperial court: it is doubtless relevant that he had been deposed before the Council of Serdica, apparently by western bishops (CSEL 65.61.12/3: quem ipsi exposuerunt).

10. The Scrdican subscriptions identify his see as Capua (CSEL 65.134 No. 14).

11. Feder, Studien I (1909), 157/8. Both Fortunatianus and Vincentius were to be persuaded (or compelled) to renounce communion with Athanasius in 357 (Apol. ad Const. 27.3, cf. Jerome, De vir. ill. 97).

12. See, respectively, R. Aigrain, 'St. Maximin de Trêves,' Bulletin de la Société des Antiquaires de l'Ouest 4 (1916-1918, publ. 1919.1, 69-93; J.-C. Picard, Le souvenir des évêques (Bibliothèque des écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome 268 |Rome, 19881), 35, 41-44. Protasius appears to have died in 346 or 347; Aigrain argued that Maximinus was consecrated bishop of Trier on 13 August 329 and died on 12 September 346.

13. After Eugenius' death the emperors Constantius and Julian restored the statue of him in the forum of Trajan at Rome which 'ante sub divo Constante vitae et fidelissimae devotionis gratia meruit': since the inscription from the base of the statue records that after a career in the palatine service Eugenius was designated ordinary consul (/LS 1244), it is usually inferred that he must have died no later than 349 (so PLRE 1.292). But Athanasius assumes that Eugenius was still alive in 353: it may be suspected, therefore, that he was in fact designated consul for 355 as a reward for loyalty to the house of Constantine and perhaps for service rendered to Constantius during the usurpation of Magnentius.

15. PLRE 1.886. The principal narrative evidence for his career comes from Zosimus 2.48.5, Passio Artemii 12 = Philostorgius, HE 3.12% and Ammianus 14.1.10 (in office in summer 353), 7.9 (his death). Thalassius was one of the comités of Constantius who wrote to Athanasius urging him to return to Alexandria in 345/6 (Hist. Ar. 22.1).

17. Opitz 281.26 rightiy prints Montfaucon's emendation <T€Tdp>Ti{) évicn/TÛ (PG 25.600): it is hard to see how the transmitted tû €viaur$ can be defended.

18. In his second edition of the speech, J.-M. Szymusiak correctly marks a break bc-

tween paragraphs here (Sources chrétiennes 56bit [1987], 94).

19. As asserted by Girardet, Kaisergericht (1975), 108, with appeal to Schwartz, Ges. Sehr. 3 (1959), 326; Opitz on 281.22ff.

23. CSEL 65.67.1-7. Since the clades must be the large number of deaths in Constantinople after Paul's return in 341/2, ut in 67.4 presumably renders a Greek word which stated cause rather than result, and I have translated accordingly.

28. Constans is attested in Milan on 4 December 342 (CTh 9.7.3).

30. CTh 11.16.5; Firmicus Maternus, De err. prof. rel. 28.6; Libanius, Orat. 59.137-140; Ammianus 20.1.1.

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