1. For a modern example of the commonplace, compare Newman to Bishop UUathorne on 28 January 1870 with reference to the Vatican Council: 'What have we done to be treated, as the faithful never were treated before?' (Letters and Diaries of John Henry Newman, ed. S. Dessain and T. Gornall 25 [Oxford, 1973), 18).
2. For a more detailed analysis, see Schneemelcher, 'Die Epistula encyclica des Athanasius,' Aufsätze (1974), 290-337.
3. Opitz on 173.14ff. rightly rejects the common view that the Friday in Ep. enc. 4.4 is Good Friday (13 April).
4. Socrates, HE 2.11.6. The burning of the church is also mentioned by Julius in his letter of 341 (Apol. c. Ar. 30.3). On the different churches of Alexandria, see A. Martin, 'Les premiers siècles du Christianisme à Alexandrie: Essai de topographie religieuse (IIIe-tVf siècles),' RE Aug 30 (1984), 211-235.
6. Chapter IV.
9. W. Eltester, 'Die Kirchen Antiochias im IV. Jahrhundert,' ZNW 36 (1937), 251-286, at 245-256; W. Schneemelcher, 'Die Kirchweihsynode von Antiochien 341/ Bonner Festgabe Johannes Straub zum 65. Geburtstag am 18. October 1977 dargebracht von Kollegen und Schülern (Bonn, 1977), 319-346.
10. I take YpdiinaTa as reflecting an original litterae in the sense of 'a (single) letter,' and I have replaced Julius' 'we' with the first-person singular. For other Latinisms in the Greek translation of Julius' letter quoted by Athanasius, see F. E. Brightman, 'Six Notes,' JTSt 29 (1928), 158-165, at 159.
11. Opitz on 108.31 made the correct deduction, though inevitably, given the dare at which he was writing, he assumed that the 'Dedication Council' met in the second half of 341.
12. Rather than in hiding before he left Egypt, as is supposed by W. Schneemelcher, Bonner Festgabe (1977), 322.
15. The date is inferred from Paulinus, Vita Ambrosii 3/4, cf. 'Imperial Chronology, A.D. 337-350,' Phoenix 34 (1980), 160-166, at 161 n. 5.
16. CTh 11.12.1: 'publiais ac noster inimicus.'
17. For a critical text and discussion, see now J.-P. Callu, 'La préface à l'Itinéraire d'Alexandre/ De Tertullien aux Mozarabes: Mélanges offerts à J. Fontaine 1 (Paris, 1992), 429-443.
18. H. A. Cahn, 'Abolitio nominis de Constantin II,' Mélanges de numismatique offerts
à P. Bastien (Wetteren, 1987), 201/2. Constantinus' name is found erased on inscriptions at Smyrna in Asia (CIL 3.474, 477, 7198), at Celeia in Noricum (CIL 3.5207), at Brescia in Italy (CIL 5.8030), and at Avita Bibba in Africa (CIL 8.12272). Cahn plausibly suggests that the gold and silver coinage of Constantinus was withdrawn from circulation and melted down (202).
19. Libanius, Orat. 59, esp. 34,43 (where the orator speaks of the two sons and their father), 75 (the conference of 337). On the date of the speech, see App. 9, n. 19.
21. In the dialogue of 3 55 reported by Theodoretus, Constantius complains to Liberius that Athanasius, 'not satisfied with the ruin of the older of my brothers, did not cease from inciting the blessed Constans to hatred against me' (HE 2.16.21).
22. The form of the names must be regarded as quite uncertain: Opitz 283.20, 21, printed 'Aßouiipioi> and Zircipchmof, but one important manuscript offers 'Aßoirnipioi/. Neither man earns an entry in PLRE 1.
23. PLRE 1.316. Accordingly, 1 have translated aou in 4.5 as 'the emperorV since it must refer to Constantius. It seems impossible to reproduce in translation the word-play on the form of Eurropia's name unanimously given by the manuscripts (EuTpoiTos = 'morally good').
24. Jerome, Epp. 127.5. However, there are serious chronological difficulties involved in accepting Jerome's precise statement that Athanasius told Marcella about Antony and Pachomius: on the standard reconstruction of her family connections, Marcella's mother Albina was the daughter of a man born in 303 (see PLRE 1.32, 542/3, with 'Two Senators under Constantine,' J RS 65 [19751, 40-49). Hence Marcella herself, who died in 410/1, cannot have been born before c. 340.
26. PC 26.12-468 (from Montfaucon). The fourth Oration (PG 26.468-525) has long been recognised to be from another hand (CPG 2230), but Athanasius' authorship of the third is also denied by C. Kannengiessei; 'Le mystère pascal du Christ selon Athanase d'Alexandrie,' Rech. sei. rel. 63 (1975), 407-442; Athanase (1983), 310-368, who attributes it to Apollinaris of Laodicea. In favor of the transmitted attribution, see the review by G. C. Stead, JTS, N.S. 36 (1985), 227-229; D. Schmitz, 'Schimpfwörter in Athanasius' Reden gegen die Arianer,' Roma Renascens: Beiträge zur Spätantike und Rezeptionsgeschichte Ilona Opelt gewidmet, ed. M. Wissemann (Frankfurt, Bern, New York, and Paris, 1988), 308-320 (showing that the first three Orations all use precisely the same techniques of polemical defama-tionl.
As for the process of composition, C. Kannengiesser, 'Athanasius of Alexandria: Three Orations against the Arians: A Reappraisal,' Studia Patristica 17.3 (1982), 981-995; Athanase (1983), esp. 369-374, detects a 'genèse graduelle' of the first two Orations in the course of the 340s. On the other hand, there are good reasons for thinking that Athanasius wrote the first two Orations c. 340, then composed the homily on Matthew 11.27 (PG 25.207-220; CPG 2099) as part of a projected third Oration, which he completed along slightly different lines only some time later: see V. Hugger, 'Des hl. Athanasius Traktat in Mt. 11, 27,' Zeitschrift für die katholische Theologie 42 (1918), 437-441; M. Tetz, TRE 4 (1978), 339, 345. Hugger shows that, while Chapter 6 of the homily is spurious, the rest overlaps with the third Oration, in which Tetz detects allusions to the teaching of Photinus, who first attained prominence c. 344 (3.1, 3.30).
27. Kannengiesser, Athanase (1983), 19-111.
28. Observe, however, that the word Tptcts is used only once (1.58) outside two passages each of which repeats it several times (1.17/8, 3.15): see J. Wolinski, 'L'emploi de rpids dans les "Traités contre les Ariens" d'Athanase d'Alexandrie,' Studia Patrística 21 (1989), 448-455.
30. W. Bright, The Orations of St. Athanasius against the Arians (Oxford, 1873), Ixviii-lxxiv; A. Stegmann, 'Zur Datierung der "drei Reden des hl. Athanasius gegen die Arianer" (Migne, Patrol. Graec. XXVI, 9-^68),' Theologische Quartalschrift 96 (1914), 423-450; 98 (1916), 227-231.
31. Chapter XIV. The term occurs only once in the Orations, in a quasi-credal context: the Son *6€Ó? €Otii> dÁT^iyó?, áXriGtvou naTpos ópooúaios ímápxoji'' (1.9).
32. On the quotations of the Thalia, see esp. R. D. Williams, 'The Quest of the Historical Thalia; Arianism (19851, 1-35; S. G. Hall, 'The Thalia of Arius in Athanasius' Accounts,' ib. 37-58. On the letter of Alexander (Urkunde 4b), see Chapter II, at nn. 60-64.
33. Kannengiesser, Athanase (1983), 151-181, cf. G. Bardy, Recherches sur Saint Luden d'Antioche et son école (Paris, 1936), 341-347; Hanson, Search (1988), 32-41.
34. Constantine (1981), 241.
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