Journey To Cappadocia

2. For discussion of the dynastic murders of 337 and their political context, see J. W. Leedom, 'Constantius II: Three Revisions,' Byzantion 48 (1978), 132-135; R. Klein, 'Die Kämpfe um die Nachfolge nach dem Tode Constantins des Grossen,' Byzantinische Forschungen 6 (1979), 101-150; C. Piétri, 'La politique de Constance II: Un premier "césaropapisme" ou Vtmitatio Constatiniï' L'Église et l'empire au IVe siècle (Entretiens sur l'antiquité classique 34 [Vandoeuvres, 1989J), 113-172, at 116-127. Klein unfortunately starts from the assumption that the three sons of Constantine met at Viminacium in June 338 (101).

4. J. P. C. Kent, RIC 8 (1981), 32/3. On CTh 12.1.37, see App. 9 n. 5.

6. Constantine (1981), 250.

7. Julian, Caes. 329 cd; CIL 3.12483, cf. App. 9 n. 4.

8. CSEL 65.54.25-55.5. Since the letter was originally written in Greek, I take the plural aliqui and its oblique cases to reflect an original tivéç, etc., and translate accordingly.

9. For whar follows, see Socrates, HE 2.6-7, with App. 8.

10. Quoted and discussed in App. 8.

12. For proof that the year must be 337, not 338, see Schwartz, Ges. Sehr. 3 (1959», 269/70; W. Schneemelcher, 'Die Epistula encyclica des Athanasius,' Aufsätze (1974), 290-337, at 312/3; A. Martin, Sources chrétiennes 317 (Paris, 1985), 81-89; C. Piétri, L'Église et l'empire au IV siècle (1989), 120/1.

13. Observe that the History of the Arians states that the council wrote to Constantinus and Constans denouncing Athanasius (9.1), whereas the Council of

Alexandria in 338 speaks of a lerter 4to the emperors,' that is, to all three imperial brothers (Apol. c. Ar. 3.5-7).

14. So, recently, L. W. Barnard, Two Notes on Athanasius,' Orientalia Christiana Periodica 41 (1975), 344-356, reprinted in his Studies in Church History and Patristics (ANAAEKTA BA ATA AON 26 [Thessaloniki, 1978]), 341-353; B. H. Warmington, 'Did Athanasius Write History?' The Inheritance of Historiography, 350-900, ed. C. Hoidsworth and T. P. Wiseman (Exeter, 1986), 7-16, esp. 7, 12. Schwartz, Ges. Sehr. 3 (1959), 279-290 (originally published in 1911) correctly and carefully distinguished between the two councils held at Antioch in the winters of 337/8 and 338/9 respectively. Nevertheless, several subsequent treatments conflate them—and Schneemelcher, Aufsätze (1974), 297-313, 329-330, reaches the surprising conclusion that in 339 Athanasius was not deposed by a council of bishops, but merely dismissed by the emperor.

15. Emending the genitive ¿ttioköttiov (Opitz 92.18) to the nominative éitîokottoi.

16. Chapter III.

17. So, recently, W. H. C. Frend, The Rise of Christianity (Philadelphia, 1984), 527.

18. At Opitz 98.22 I read oùôéi> for où&fvî.

19. Listed by Opitz on 89.Iff.

20. Opitz on 89.Iff.: 'das Schreiben ist dem Stil nach von Athanasius verfasst.'

21. TTL'jc-ria rûu Geiaju ypa<}xôf: G. W. H. Lampe, A Patristic Greek Lexicon (Oxford, 1961), 1207, cires this passage for the meaning 'book/volume (opp. papyrus roll).'

22. Eusebius, VC 4.36, cf. G. A. Robbins, '"Fifty Copies of the Sacred Writings" (VC 4:36): Entire Bibles or Gospel Books?' Studio Patristica 19 (1989), 91-98.

23. Constantine (1981), 124/5.

24. A. Rahlfs, 'Alter und Heimat der vatikanischen Bibelhandschrift,' Nachrichten der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philologisch-historische Klasse 1899.72-79; T. Zahn, 'Athanasius und der Bibelkanon,' Festschrift der Universität Erlangen für Prinzregent Luitpold (Leipzig, 1901), 1-36; J. N. Birdsall, Cambridge History of the Bible 1 (Cambridge, 1970), 359/60, cf. J. Ruwer, 'Le canon alexandrin des Écritures: S. Athanase,' Biblica 33 (1952), 1-29. The Alexandrian origin of the Codex Varicanus, already a very strong probability, was rendered certain by P. Bodmer XIV, published in 1961: see the bibliography and brief discussion in B. M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible (New York and Oxford, 1981), 68, 74.

25. Athanasius says that the letter was sent 'to all [bishops] and to Julius, the bishop of Rome' (Apol. c. Ar. 20.1), but that must surely be an exaggeration.

26. C. Piétri, 'La question d'Athanase vue de Rome (338-360),' Politique et théologie (1974), 93-126, at 95-100.

27. Schwartz, Ges. Sehr. 3 (1959), 278/9, deduced that Sccundus had consecrated Pistus bishop of the Mareotis. But the verb KaOioTriiu and the cognate noun KciTdoTaots are used with equal frequency of the consecration of bishops and the ordination of priests.

30. Chapter X.

31. For example, by Seeck, Regesten (1919), 186; N. H. Baynes, 'Athanasiania,' JEA 11 (1925), 58-69, at 65-69, on the assumption that Athanasius returned to Alex-

andria in November 338. For an attempt to squeeze the interview in Cappadocia into the autumn of 337, see C. Piétri, L'Église et l'empire au IV siècle (1989), 124, 174/5.

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