The Festal Letters

1. On the Festal Letters of earlier bishops of Alexandria, see Camplani, Lettere (1989), 19-24.

2. Lorenz, Osterfestbrief (1986): see the brief assessment in JTS, N.S. 39 (1988), 249/50.

3. On the importance of Camplani's work, see JTS, N.S. 41 (1990), 258-264.

5. Recently edited by W. Wanda-Comus, Cosmas Indicopleustes: Topographie chrétienne 3 [Sources chrétiennes 197, 1973), 241-253; P. Joannou, Discipline générale antique (/V*-/Xf s.) 2: Les canons des pères grecs (Fonti 9 (Grottaferrata, 1963)), 71-76. Vaticanus graecus 1650 preserves Athanasius' list of the canon from the letter with interpolated line-lengths for each book: G. Mercati, 'Per l'"Apocritico" di Macario Magnete: Una tavola dei capi dei libri I, II, e III,' Nuove note di letteratura biblica e cristiana (Studi e Testi 95 {Vatican, 1941)), 49-84, at 56/7, 78-80.

6. For fuller details, see Camplani, Lettere (1989), 31-66; for a conspectus of editions down to 1974, CPG 2102.

7. W. Cureton, The Festal Letters of Athanasius (London, 1848).

8. A. Mai, Noua Patrum Bibliotheca 6 (Rome, 1853), 1-149.

9. H. Burgess, The Festal Letters of S. Athanasius (Oxford, 1854), 146-141.

10. For two conspicuous examples, see V. Peri, 'La cronología delle lettere festali de Sant' Atanasio e la Quaresima,' Aevum 35 (1961), 28-86, esp. 48-50; M. Albert, 'La 10* lettre festale d'Athanase d'Alexandrie (traduction et interprétation),' Parole de l'Orient 6-7 (1975-1976), 69-90.

11. Robertson, Select Writings (1892), 503-553. The Syriac fragments of Letters XXVII, XXIX, and XLIV in Severus of Anrioch's Liber contra impium grammaticum are edited and translated into French by J. Lebon, CSCO 101 (1933), 293-295; 102 (1933), 216/7. (Both volumes are also styled CSCO, Scriptores Syri4 6.)

12. Echoing without further arguments the verdict of W. Wright, Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum 2 (London, 1871), 406 No. dcccii: 'written in a peculiar, rather cursive hand of about the v¡ii,h cent.'

13. Camplani, Lettered989), 32-34.

14. Camplani, Lettere ( 1989), 73-79, cf. JTS, N.S. 41 (1990), 259.

15. L. T. Lefort, S. Athanase: Lettres festates et pastorales en Copte (CSCO 150 = Scriptores Coptici 19, 1955), 1-72 (text); (CSCO 151 = Scriptores Coptici 20, 1955), 1-55 (translation). Earlier editions are listed at CSCO 150 (1955), v.

16. R. G. Coquin and E. Luccesi, 'Un complément au corps copte des lettres festales d'Athanase,' Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 13 (1982), 137-142; R. G. Coquin, 'Les lettres festales d'Athanase (CPG 2101): Un nouveau complément: Le manuscrit IFAO, Copte 25 (Planche X),' ib. 15 (1984), 133-158.

19. M. Pieper, 'Zwei Blätter aus dem Osterbrief des Athanasius vom Jahre 364 (Pap. Berol. 11948),' ZNW 37 (1938), 73-76, cf. Camplani, Lettere (1989), 40. The leaves were in Berlin in 1938, but now appear to be lost.

20. A. Laminski, Der heilige Geist als Geist Christi und Geist der Gläubigen (Leipzig, 1969), 114/5; M. Tetz, TRE 4 (1979), 341/2; Camplani, Lettere (1989), 101-103.

21. Camplani, Lettere (1989), 103-105.

22. Thus the Index states that Athanasius wrote no letter for Easter 341 or 342, but the Syriac corpus includes letters for both these years (Letters XIII, XIV).

23. A. Jülicher, Göttingischer Gelehrte Anzeigen 1913.706-708 (in a review of O. Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur 3 [Freiburg im Breisgau, 1912]); E. Schwartz, 'Zur Kirchengeschichte des vierten Jahrhunderts,' ZNW 34 (1935), 129-213, reprinted in his Gesammelte Schriften 4 (Berlin, 1960), 1-110. Their principal conclusions were accepted by L. Duchesne, Origines du culte chrétiens (Paris, 1920), 255/6; K. Holl, 'Die Schriften des Epiphanius gegen die Bilderverehrung,' Sitzungsberichte der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1916.828-868, reprinted in his Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Kirchengeschichte 2 (Tübingen, 1927), 351-387; O. Casel, 'Art und Sinn der ältesten christlichen Osterfcier,' Jahrbuch für Liturgiewissenschaft 14 (1938), 1-78.

24. F. L. Cross, The Study of Athanasius (Oxford, 1945), 16/7.

25. L. T. Lefort, 'Les lettres festales de s. Athanase,' Bulletin de l'Académie Royale de Belgique, Classe des Lettres' 39 (1953), 643-651. He attempted to evade the liturgical argument by postulating that the letters which mention a six-day fast were written after Lent had already begun (649).

26. J. Quasten, Patrology 3 (Utrecht, Antwerp, and Westminster, Md., 1960), 53: 'This new discovery proves Schwartz's chronology impossible.' That assessment was widely accepted: see V. Peri, Aevum 35 (1961), 28-62; C. Kannengiesser, 'Le témoignage des Lettres festales de Saint Athanase sur la date de VApologie contre les païens, sur l'Incarnation du Verbe,' Rech. sei. rel. 52 (1964), 91-100; P. Merendino, Paschale Sacramentum: Eine Untersuchung über die Osterkatechese des hl. Athanasius von Alexandrien in ihrer Beziehung zu den frühchristlichen exegetisch-theologischen Überlieferungen (Liturgiewissenschaftliche Quellen und Forschungen 42 [Münster, 1965]), vi; B. Altaner and A. Stuiber, Patrologie7 (Freiburg, Basle, and Vienna, 1966), 277; T. D. Barnes, Constantine (1981), 233, 386. Observe, however, the doubts expressed by M. Tetz, TRE 4 (1979), 344.

27. G. Garitte, 'Les citations arméniennes des lettres festales d'Athanase,' Handes Amsorya 75 (1961), 425-440, Nos. 6, 5, cf. E. Schwartz, ZNW 34 (1935), 132-135.

28. L. T. Lefort, 'À propos des Festales de s. Athanase,' Le Muséon 67 (1954), 43-50, stigmatising the unwelcome evidence as Mes données pseudo-chronologiques de Timothée.'

29. Lorenz, Osterfestbrief (1986), 20-28.

30. As argued by Camplani, Lettere (1989), 159.

31. Lorenz, Osterfestbrief (1986), 31-35.

32. C. J. Hefele, 'Die neu aufgefundenen Osterbriefe des h. Athanasius,' Theologische Quartalschrift 35 (1853), 146-167, at 150, cf. 162-167. Hefele was reviewing F. Larsow's annotated German translation, Die fest-briefe des heiligen Athanasius, bischofs von Alexandria (Leipzig, 1852).

33. C. J. Hefele, A History of the Councils of the Church, trans. H. N. Oxenham 2 (Edinburgh, 1876), 88 n. 1 = C. J. Hefele and H. Leclercq, Histoire des conciles 1.2 (Paris, 1907), 739 n. 4. The sentence also appears in W. Glück, 'Die Bistümer Noricums, besonders das lorchische, zur Zeit der römischen Herrschaft,' Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-historische Classe 17 (1855), 60-150, at 64 n. 2: 'Dieser Vorbericht gehörte ursprünglich zu einer anderen nicht mehr vorhandenen Sammlung der Festbriefe des h. Athanasius und ward von einem späteren Abschreiber mit der obigen verbunden.'

34. Robertson, Select Writings (1892), 501 n. 61, 504 n. 17b, 527 n. 1. For a tabulated comparison of what the Index and the headings to each letter state about the consuls of each year and the prefects of Egypt, see A. Martin, Sources chrétiennes 317 (1985), 313-319.

35. V. Peri, Aevum 35 (1961), 42/3. The March new moon appeared in Alexandria in the early morning of 15 March in 340, about midnight during the night of 9/10 March in 346: see H. H. Goldstine, New and Full Moons, 100Î B.C. to A.D. 1651 (Philadelphia, 1973), 112/3. Hence the erroneous calculation must belong to 346 and cannot have been made for Easter 340; cf. A. Martin, Sources chrétiennes 317 (1985), 310/1).

36. Camplani, Lettere (1989), 115-129,190-193.

37. For a similar list keyed to years rather than to the transmitted numbers of the letters, see Camplani, Lettere (1989), 195/6.

38. The dares of Easter at Alexandria between 328 and 373 are conveniently tabulated in Robertson, Select Writings (1892), 502. The underlying computation is not altogether clear: there are three deviations (in 333,346, and 349) from the Alexandrian cycle assumed by E. Schwartz, Christliche und jüdische Ostertafeln (Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philologisch-historische Klasse, N.F. 8.6, 1905), 46-49, who asserts that in these years Athanasius changed the date to please Rome (26, 28).

40. E. Schwartz, ZNW 34 (1935), 131/2, cf. Ges. Sehr. 3 (1959), 270-272.

41. Robertson, Select Writings (1892), 527.

42. Chapter IV.

43. S. Sakkos, *'H AO' eopTaonidi cmcrroXfi toö M.'AOai/aaiou/ Tôfioç éôprtoç XiXiooTîfc é£aKooiocrrrjs- èncreiov McyâXov'ABavaoiov (373-1973) (Thessaloniki, 1974), 129-196, at 129/30.

44. E. Schwartz, ZNW 34 (1935), 134. Camplani, Lettere (1989), 170/1, argues in favor of retaining the transmitted date.

45. It is not known why the Coptic version numbers XL, XLI, XLII, and XLII1 as 41, 42, 43, and 44 respectively (R. G. Coquin, Orientalin Lovaniensia Periodica 15 (1984], 144-152, 154/5; CSCO 150.67.5-8 = 151.48.11-14).

46. Observe, however, that Kannengiesser, Atbanase (1983), 398-403, argues that the letter 'date de Päques 340.'

47. E. Schwartz, ZNW 34 (1935), 131/2; Lorenz, Osterfestbrief (1986), 28-30, cf. L. Duchesne, Origines* (1920), 255/6. Duchesne himself had deduced from the Letter to Serapion that the Christians of Egypt were still fasting only for the week preceding Easter as late as 341.

49. Camplani, Lettere (1989), 160-168.

50. Lorenz, Osterfestbrief (1986), 29, styles it an 'Exilsbrief.'

51. Chapter IV.

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