Bishops And Society

There exist excellent studies of many aspects of the general historical context against which the career of Athanasius must be viewed, such as imperial legislation relating to Christianity, the place of the church in the Later Roman Empire, and the Christian bishop in Late Antique society.1 Modern historians have also produced fine studies which illuminate Athanasius* immediate background, such as the spread of Christianity in the Egyptian countryside, the organisation of the church in Egypt,...

Sirmium Arles And Milan

Although the council of sirmium met late in 351,1 one tmpor-tant preparatory step had been taken before the Battle of Mursa, probably in the spring. Basil of Ancyra interrogated Photinus about his theological views in the presence of eight officials of Constantius, some of very high rank they included Taurus, the future consul of 361 Datianus and Cerialis, who held the consulate together in 358 and Thalassius, the praetorian prefect of Gallus which implies that Gallus and his prefect had not...

Documents In Theodoretus

HE 5.3.8 seems to be a clear allusion to monophysite ideas and can hardly have been written before c. 447, while 5.36.4 refers to the (plural) sisters of Theodosius as sharing his private devotions (cf. Socrates, HE 7.22.5) and hence must have been written before the death of Marina on 3 August 449 (Chr. min. 2.83). Despite modem assumptions to the contrary, Ep. 113 does not show that the History was still unwritten in 448 G. F. Chesnut, The Date of Composition of Theodoret's Church History,'...

Athanasius And The Martyrs Of Adrianopole

On this pair of names, see below, n. 8. 4. M ller, Lexicon (1952), 1507, glosses Orr ni r aai> here as 'scripta scil(icet) priora redintegrare.' 5. Ammianus 31.6.2 Not. Dig., Oriens 11.32, cf. A. H. M. Jones, Later Roman Empire (Oxford, 1964), 834-836. 6. App. 9. The hypothesis that Constantius was in Constantinople at the time of the Council of Serdica was advanced by Klein, Constantius (1977), 74 n. 179, though he dated the council to 342 3. 7. CSEL 65.55.21-24,134 No. 19 Socrates, HE...

Julius And Marcellus

Hanson, Search (1988), 217. 2. Julius praises his role at the council most warmly (Apol. c. Ar. 23.3,32.2). No work is transmitted under the name of Marcellus except for the quotations in Eusebius (CPG 2800) and his letter to Julius (CPG 2801), but modern scholars have made a strong case for regarding him as the author of several works attributed to other writers of the fourth century of these, the De sancta ecclesia, which is transmitted under the name of Anthimus,...

Creeds And Councils

Kelly, Creeds3 (1972), 266-268. 4. On all aspects of this credal statement, and for a critical text of the Latin version, see Chapter VIII, at nn. 35-40 (and the works cited there). 5. The Hahns print Hilary, Syn. 34, as their base text. In his edition of the historical fragments deriving from Hilary CSEL 65.69-73), A. L. Feder also prints (1) Hilary, Syn. 34 (2) the Latin version of the creed in Cod. Ver. LX (58), fols. 78v-79 (EOM A 1.638-640) (3) a Greek...

The Condemnation Of 349 And Its Context

The letters which Athanasius wrote for the Easters of 341 and 342 survive in the Syriac corpus of the Festal Letters (13, 3), which also contains notifications of the date of the Easters of 345 and 346 written in 344 and 345 respectively (17, 18). The absence of other festal letters for the period of Athanasius' second exile by no means proves that he wrote none (App. 1). 3. Apol. c. Ar. 37-41 EOMIA 1.657 8. 6. One pair of names, consecutive in the document to which they subscribed (Apol. c....

Return To Alexandria

The synodical letter of the western council of serdica was taken to Antioch by the bishops Vincentius of Capua and Euphrates of Cologne, who also carried the council's request to Constantius to allow the exiled eastern bishops to return and a letter from Constans commending the exiles to his brother. They reached Syria toward Easter 344, which in this year fell on 15 April. For reasons which remain obscure, Stephanus, the bishop of Antioch, attempted to discredit the two envoys. Using priests...

The Usurpation Of Magnentius

Constans was not a popular and widely respected ruler. writ-ing in 361, Aurelius Victor charged him with rabid pederasty, headlong avarice, and the employment of corrupt ministers.1 More serious, he alienated both high civilian officials and his military high command, and on 18 January 350 his most successful general was proclaimed Augustus at Autun.2 The new emperor who replaced Constans was a surprising choice. Magnentius, born at Amiens of a British father and Frankish mother had begun his...

Athanasius And Constantine History And Apologia

Athanasius was to occupy the metropolitan see of alexandria for nearly forty-five years, until his death on 2 May 373. But his tenure was neither unchallenged nor uninterrupted. The Melitians elected a rival bishop of their own, and Athanasius was at once compelled to defend his position. For more than seven years he was successful, but he spent the last eighteen months of the reign of Constantine in exile in Gaul. Although Athanasius was allowed to return in 337, he was soon deposed, and the...

The Composition Of The Defense Against The Arians

The Defense against the Arians has a puzzling structure which calls for explanation 1-2 Introduction 3-58 Letters on behalf of Athanasius written by the following, with brief connecting remarks 21-35 Julius, bishop of Rome, to the eastern bishops (341) 51 Constantius to Athanasius (three letters of 345 6) 52-53 Julius to the church of Alexandria (346) (1) bishops and priests of the catholic church (3) governors in Egypt (all 346) 59-87 The persecution of Athanasius by Melitians and Arians in...

Editions Of The Historia Acephala

Martin, Sources chr tiennes 317 (1985), 305 6, gives a concordance of the divisions of the text of the Historia acephala in all editions including her own. For the convenience of readers of this book, tabulated below is a concordance of the reference-systems of the most widely accessible and quoted modern editions (1) A. Martin, Sources chr tiennes 317 (1985), 138-168 (2) P. Batiffol, 'Historia acephala Arianorum, edition diplomatique d'apr s le ms. Veronensis LX,' M langes de litt rature et...

The Homoean Creed

The traditional term is rejected by E. D. Hunt, 'Did Constantius II Have Court Bishops ' Studia Patr stica 19 (1989), 86-90. Similarly, Klein, Constantes (1977), 86-89, argues thar Constantius was not influenced by Ursacius and Valens. But it is clear that normally bishops were in attendance wherever the imperial court happened to be when Constantius visited Rome in 357, his entourage included Ursacius, Valens, Basil of Ancyra, and Eudoxius of Germanicia (Chapter XV, at nn. 28, 56). 2. Whence...

Paul Of Constantinople

The career of Paul, who was bishop of Constantinople in the first half of the reign of Constantius, has often been discussed.' But the existing reconstructions of his career do not do full justice to the primary evidence, in particular to the account of Paul's career given by Athanasius in his History of the Arians (Hist. Ar. 7.1-6), and most of them base important deductions on the assumption that the Council of Serdica met in 342 rather than 343.2 On the other hand, Athanasius' account of the...

Info

On individual letters where specific arguments supple ment the general considerations already applied. III speaks of 'the fast of forty days ' (6). Easter fell on 16 Pharmouthi 11 April in 342 and 353 as well as in 330. But the historical allusions in the text fit 342 far better than 353 Athanasius not only writes of affliction (5), but also as one absent from Alexandria (1). Schwartz accordingly (and rightly) deduced that 'the year 352 is excluded.*19 IV records that it was sent from court by...

Index Of Athanasian Texts

Against the Pagans, 12-13, 242nn25,27, 243n29 Defense against the Avians, 6, 20, 61, 99-100, 113, 129, 192-195, 238n30, 269n40 3-19 36-40, 52, 202, 247n77, 249n27, 20-35 40, 50, 58-61, 202, 207, 253nl0, 52-53 249n39, 265n23 59-88 25-31, 192-193, 194, 301nl 60.2 178 83.4 194, 195 Defense before Constantius, 6, 11, 63-64, 112-114, 123-124, 196-197, 238n32, 302nnl-9 3-4 39-40, 50-52, 64-70, 113, 225 5 34,41-42, 113,219, 220 6-11 53, 103-104, 113 23 104, 244n40, 291n65 30-31 119-120 Defense of His...

Athanasius In Rome

Athanasius soon broadcast to the world his version of his expulsion from Alexandria by means of an Encyclical Letter sent to a large number of bishops. He began with a salutation to 'his fellow ministers in every place' and drew their attention to his 'dreadful and insupportable sufferings' (1.1). Athanasius compared his expulsion to the rape of the Levite's wife by the sons of Belial (Judges 19.22-30), and he urged Christians everywhere to bestir themselves and to lend aid with no less...

Narrative And Chronology In Socrates

For a similar brief analysis of HE 2.3-20, see W. Schneemelcher, 'Die Kirchweihsynode von Antiochien 341,' Bonner Festgabe Johannes Straub zum 65. Geburtstag am 18. October 1977 dargebracht von Kollegen und Sch lern (Bonn, 1977), 319-346, at 334-336 for an analysis of the whole book by the sources employed, F. Geppert, Die Quellen des Kirchenhistorikers Socrates Scholasticus (Studien zur Geschichte der Theologie und der Kirche 3.4 (Leipzig, 1898 ), 118-121. One of Socrates' important sources,...

Journey To Cappadocia

New Empire (1982.1, 85-87 below, App. 9. 2. For discussion of the dynastic murders of 337 and their political context, see J. W. Leedom, 'Constantius II Three Revisions,' Byzantion 48 (1978), 132-135 R. Klein, 'Die K mpfe um die Nachfolge nach dem Tode Constantins des Grossen,' Byzantinische Forschungen 6 (1979), 101-150 C. Pi tri, 'La politique de Constance II Un premier c saropapisme ou Vtmitatio Constatini ' L' glise et l'empire au IVe si cle (Entretiens sur l'antiquit classique 34...

Il Bishop Alexander

The earliest explicit rule on the subject is Canon 11 of the council held at Neocaesarea between 314 and 325 (EOMIA 1.132-135), cf. J. Gaudemet, L' glise dans l'empire romain aux IV et Ve si cles (Paris, 1957), 124-127. 2. O. von Lemm, 'Koptische Fragmente zur Patriarchengeschichte Alexandriens,' M moires de l'Acad mie Imp riale des Sciences de St.-P tersbourg7 36, No. 11 (1888), 20, frag. P.5 (text), 36 (translation and discussion). 3. Epistula Ammonis 13 claiming that Pachomius defended his...

Bishop Alexander

Athanasius was born at the very end of the third century, the earliest and best evidence for his date of birth stands in the Festal Judex, which states that his election as bishop of Alexandria on 8 June 328 was challenged on the grounds that he had not yet attained the canonical age Index 3). Since the minimum age for ordination to the priesthood was probably then thirty years (equivalent to twenty-nine, on inclusive reckoning),1 while Athanasius was only a deacon when his predecessor died, he...

Epilogue

On 2 May (Index 45) the Historia acephala 5.14 has 'VIII pachom mensis' ( 3 May), which should perhaps be emended to 'VII.' 2. Rufinus, HE 11.3 Socrates, HE 4.20.2-22.3 Thcodoretus, HE 4.20 Sozomenus, HE 6.19.2-6. 4. Theodoretus, HE 4.21.14, says that he is quoting a letter it seems probable, therefore, that Peter in 373 wrote a letter analogous in form, scope, and aim to his predecessor's Encyclical Letter of 339 (Chapter V). 5. Theodoretus, HE 4.22.1-35. The extract concludes with the...

The Date Of On The Council Of Nicaea

The work which is conventionally known as the Epistula de decretis Nicaenae synodi or, more briefly, as De Decretis has a far from compendious title in the Greek manuscripts of Athanasius 'that the Council at Nicaea, having seen the villainy of the Eusebians, properly and piously propounded its decisions against the Arian heresy.' It is not easy to date precisely. In his introduction to the standard English translation of the work, Archibald Robertson contented himself with a date between 351...

The Emperor And The Church 324361

What does the career of athanasius reveal about the chris-rian church in the Constantinian empire This essay in historical reconstruction has attempted to understand what Athanasius wrote about his career and why he wrote as he did, and, at the same time, to analyse what he wrote in order to disentangle the true course of events from the subtle misrepresentations with which he deliberately covered and obscured his controversial career. What general inferences may now drawn 1 Perhaps the most...

Appendix S Narrative And Chronology In Socrates

Socrates begins the second book of his Ecclesiastical History' by stating that he has rewritten the first two books avoiding the chronological errors of Rufinus which he had earlier repeated (such as putting the Council of Tyre after the death of Constantine (cf. Rufinus, HE 10.17 and omitting Athanasius' exile in Gaul in 335-337). Socrates explains that he became aware of Rufinus' errors when he came across treatises by Athanasius and contemporary letters hence the rewritten first two books,...

Imperial Residences And Journeys

On the imperial chronology of the period 337-361, sec also D. Kienast, R mische Kaisertabelle Grundz ge einer r mischen Kaiserchronologie (Darmstadt, 1989), 305-320 with helpful bibliographies for each emperor and usurper). 3. The following usurpers proclaimed in 350 are omitted Magnentius, Augustus in Gaul until 353 (PLRE 1.532) his Caesar Decentius (PLRE 1.244 5) Nepotianus, who was briefly emperor in Rome from 3 to 30 June 350 (PLRE 1.624) and Vetranio, who was...

Athanasius And The Martyrs Of Adrianople

After the council of serdica, practically three years passed before Athanasius reentered Alexandria. For it was clear that the exiled bishops whom the western council had restored could not resume secure possession of their sees until the eastern emperor agreed to their return. A certain amount is known about the ecclesiastical negotiations between East and West after the Council of Serdica and about Constantius' dealings with Athanasius after he had accepted the Sercican decisions and agreed...

V

For the complicated negotiations of 350, see the table in J. Sasel, The Struggle between Magnentius and Constantius II for Italy and Illyricum,' Ziva antika 21 (1971), 205-216, at 209. 10. Zonaras 13.8. On the date (which is controverted), see P. Bastien, Le monnayage de Magnence (3S0-3S3)1 (Wettern, 1983), 15 6 'D cence, Poemenius Probl mes de chronologie,' Quaderni ticinesi Numismatica e antichit classiche 12 (1983), 177-189. D. Gricourt, M langes de numismatique offerts Pierre Bastien...

Introduction

ATHANASJUS CUTS AN IMPRESSIVE HISTORICAL FIGURE. ALTHOUGH HE lived in an age whose emperors, thinkers, and ascetics often appear larger than life, there is something particularly heroic about a man who could face the threats of Roman emperors totally uncowed and unafraid even when he stood apparently alone as 'Athanasius contra mundum.' But what precisely was the nature of Athanasius' greatness Although he owed his political standing to the fact that between 328 and 373 he was the bishop of...

The Emperor And The Church

Cross-references ro the actions of emperors and to church councils discussed in Chapters II-XVII are not given in what follows the relevant passages can easily be located through the table of contents and the indices. 2. Matthews, Ammianus (1989), gives the best, fullest, and most recent exposition of this evaluation of the historian. For some reservations, see 'Ammianus Marcellinus and His World,' CP 88 (1993), 55-70. 3. See, briefly, 'Literary Convention, Nostalgia, and Reality in Ammianus...

New Theological Controversies

The theological coalition in the east which had so often condemned Athanasius from 335 to 351 changed suddenly and unexpectedly in the late 350s. A powerful catalyst was added to the theological brew which had been steeping in the same controversies for twenty years and reaction soon produced new combinations and alignments. The radical doctrines of Aetius and Eunomius shattered the broad alliance of bishops in Asia Minor, Syria, and Palestine which had united to condemn Athanasius, Marcellus,...

Apologia Polemic And Theology

In february 356, as in the spring of 339, athanasius escaped arrest when his church in Alexandria was seized. A picturesque story was later told of how he remained concealed for six years, his whereabouts unknown, through the agency of a devoted virgin.1 The truth is more interesting and more complex, though few precise details are known.2 Since Athanasius was an outlaw whom the authorities strenuously sought to apprehend, he must have moved about constantly until he resumed possession of his...

The Festal Letters

On the Festal Letters of earlier bishops of Alexandria, see Camplani, Lettere (1989), 19-24. 2. Lorenz, Osterfestbrief (1986) see the brief assessment in JTS, N.S. 39 (1988), 249 50. 3. On the importance of Camplani's work, see JTS, N.S. 41 (1990), 258-264. 5. Recently edited by W. Wanda-Comus, Cosmas Indicopleustes Topographie chr tienne 3 Sources chr tiennes 197, 1973), 241-253 P. Joannou, Discipline g n rale antique ( V*- Xf s.) 2 Les canons des p res grecs (Fonti 9 (Grottaferrata, 1963)),...

The Elder Statesman

For discussion, see J. F. Drinkwater, 'The Pagan Underground, Constantius IPs Secret Service, and the Survival and the Usurpation of Julian the Apostate,' Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History1, ed. C. Deroux 3 Collection Latomus 180 Brussels, 1983 , 348-387. 8. Brennecke, Hilarius 1984 , 360-367. 9. Despite Sulpicius Severus, Vita Martini 6.7 'cum sancto Hilario compcrisset regis paenitentia potestatem indultam fuisse redeundi . . .' Chron. 2.45.4...

Eomia

Turner, Ecclesiae Occidentalis Monumenta Iuris Antiquissima. Oxford, 1899-1939. A. L. Feder, Studien zu Hilarius von Poitiers I Die sogenannten 'fragmenta hist rica' und der sogenannte 'Liber I ad Constantium Imperatorem' nach ihrer berlieferung, inhaltlichen Bedeutung und Entstehung. Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-historische Klasse 162, Abhandlung 4,1910. The volume as a whole has the publication date of 1909, but Feder's monograph...

Athanasius And Constantine

The nature of episcopal elections in Alexandria has been a matter of some contention see the successive discussions by K. M ller, 'Kleine Beitr ge zur alten Kirchengeschichte 16 Die lteste Bischofswahl und -weihe in Rom und Alexandrien,' ZNW 28 1929 , 274-296 W. Telfer, 'Episcopal Succession in Egypt,' JEH 3 1952 , 1-13 E. W. Kemp, 'Bishops and Presbyters at Alexandria,' J EH 6 1955 , 125-142 J. L cuyer, 'Le probl me des consecrations episcopales dans l' glise...

The Council Of Serd1ca

The explicit evidence for the date of the Council of Serdica is either erroneous or ambiguous. Socrates, HE 2.20.4 followed by Sozomenus, HE 3.12.7 alleges that it took place in the eleventh year after the death of Constantine in the consular year 347 which is impossible. The Festal Index points to either 342 or 343 15 , while a historical fragment in Cod. Ver. LX 58 , fol. 71 , has the notice 'congregata est synodus consolatu Constantini et Consrantini aput Serdicam.'...

Info Jru.edu.in

Libanius, Orat. 59.7510 Socrates, HE 2.7, cf. Libanius, Orat. 59.75, 77 Athanasius, Apol. ad Const. 5.2 Julian, Orat. 1, 20d-21a, cf. Libanius, Orat. 59.76-80 Athanasius, Ep. enc. 2.1 Hist. Ar. 10.1 Itinerarium Alexandri, pr. 1, cf. 414 CTb 12.1.30s the place of issue is transmitted as Bessae Athanasius, Syn. 25.1 Philostorgius p. 212.19-22 Bidez Socrates, HE 2.13.5, cf. Jerome, Chronicle 235' Chr. min. 1.236 Libanius, Orat. 59.94-97 Socrates, HE 2.13.7, cf. Jerome,...

Chronology Of Athanasius Career And Writings

Leaves Alexandria for the Council of Tyre First audience with Constantius at Viminacium Appears before Constantius at Caesarea in Cappadocia First audience with Constans in Milan Second audience with Constans in Trier At the court of Constans in Aquileia Granted permission by Constantius to return to Alexandria Last audience with Constans in Trier Travels from Aquileia to Rome and thence to Syria Third audience with Constantius in Antioch

Creeds And Councils 337361

Socrates spoke of a labyrinth of creeds in the reign of Constantius HE 2.41.17 , and J. N. D. Kelly entitled the relevant chapter of his study of early Christian creeds 'The Age of Synodal Creeds. The list below states the date and place of the councils at which the surviving creeds were promulgated. Each entry states or discusses the following 1 thc number of the document in A. Hahn and G. L. Hahn, Bibliothek der Symbole und Glaubensregeln der alten Kird e3 Breslau, 1897 , 183-209, followed by...

Socrates Sozomenus And Sabinus

Socrates begins his Ecclesiastical History with the accession of Constantine in 306 HE 1-2.1, 40.3 , and he concludes ir with the seventeenth consulate of Theodosius in 439 HE 7.48.8 it seems highly probable that he completed the work in the latter year.1 Socrates was born in Constantinople shortly before 380 HE 5.24.9, cf. 5.16.9 , and he drew much oral information from the aged Novatianist priest Auxanon, who in his youth had attended the Council of Nicaea in 325 HE 1.13.2, cf. 10.5 .2 Hence...

The Council Of Serdica

Constans first wrote to constantius requesting a council in the spring or early summer of 342.1 When the Council of Serdica met in the late summer of 343, virtually eighteen months had passed a period which corresponds closely to the one year and six months which Socrates reports as intervening between the summoning and the meeting of the council.2 The council confronted a controversial agenda, and East and West regarded the problems it was to discuss from totally different perspectives. The...