And Their Systematic Unity 123

already stated, the conceptions of Socrates are in such wise deepened, enlarged, and universalised, that the ideal principle which Socrates sought to

introduce into morals is made the basis of a philosophy of the universe. In accordance with this view we find in the Phaedo a kind of transfigured rendering of the fact, vouched for by Xenophon, that Socrates at one period of his life had occupied himself with the physical theories of the earlier philosophers, but had finally turned away from them to investigate the ethical principle by which the conduct of man must be regulated. Plato accommodates this fact to his own case, and makes Socrates turn away from the theory of Anaxagoras—who, though he had spoken of reason as the ordering principle of all things, had nevertheless adhered to the methods of explanation which were employed by the other physical philosophers—to the principles and methods of his own idealism. Thus the Platonic Socrates tells us that there was a time when he was content to explain all phenomena by physical causes, treating e.g. the growth of animals as the result of some interaction of heat and cold, and even the perception

and thought of man as due to the action of the blood, or the air on' the matter of the brain. But he soon began to; find a difficulty in such explanations ; for he found it impossible to understand how the unity of life and mind should be produced by i i

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