The Precursors Of Plato

Athens to appeal to inward conviction as the one authentic voice of God. Hence also it was a natural result that many of the immediate followers of Socrates, the Minor Socratic schools as they are called, should have adopted a thorough-going individualism, which withdrew them from the community, and repudiated all its claims, as well as all the re-ligious ideas that were connected therewith. Thus with them, as with some of the Sophists, the appeal to conscious reason took a distinctly...

The Platonic Idealism 101

Things together' i.e. it is to be found only in some principle which explains all the diversities of experience in consistency with each other. The Gorgias is the dialogue in which the reconsti-tution of ethics upon the new basis begins. In it Plato insists, not, as in the purely Socratic dialogues, upon the opposition of ignorance and knowledge, but upon the opposition, and at the same time the relation, of opinion and knowledge, or, in other words, of the apparent and the real in morals....

The Theory Of Ideas 189

Be regarded as a relative difference a distinction between factors in a unity, which imply each other and which cannot be separated. On this view reality cannot be conceived except as the object of thought, nor thought except as the consciousness of reality. On the one hand, to take reality as complete in itself apart from thought, or as only accidentally related to thought, is essentially to misconceive its nature for every characteristic by which objects are determined as such, can be shown...

Info

It is to be noted that the dialogue in whfoh Plato first speaks of the soul as self-moving and immortal is also dialogue in which he first asserts that dialectio is a process feetfe erf analysis and synthesis, and that its object is to attain to a system * * view of things.

The Immortality Of The Soul

In that dialogue we have the negative thought, that the soul cannot he destroyed by any evil derived from another than itself, in the Phaedrm we have the positive counterpart of this, that it is determined, and can only be determined, by itself. It has a universal nature and, therefore, it transcends all limits or hindrances that can be put upon it by other things. They cannot affect it, or they can affect it only indirectly through its own action. Even its confinement in a mortal body is...

The Immortality Of The Soul 199

Still the difficulty was not removed till, by the conflict of the earlier schools, Plato was led to realise the equal importance of analysis and synthesis and to define the idea as the unity of identify and difference, of rest and motion. When this step was taken, the vague consciousness of the unity of all ideas with each other through the Idea of Good, which had been expressed in the jRepublic, at once developed into the conception of a community or connexion of ideas, as distinct yet...

The Nature Of Ideas

Identical thing, in their particular presentments, where they are confused with one another and with the subjects in which they appear, they take manifold and diverse forms.1 When he is dwelling upon this point of view Plato sometimes seems almost, if not altogether, to fall hack upon the unmediated opposition of knowledge and ignorance as it was conceived 1> y Socrates. The ideal reality of things is represented as existing in eternal self-identity, as the one beyond the many, or as the...

The Platonic Idealism

Ordinary moral judgments of men and his method of achieving it had consisted simply in bringing such judgments together, comparing them, showing their agreements and differences, and using one of them as a negative instance to correct the hasty hypothesis suggested by another for itx this way he hoped to find a principle which would explain thfem all, showing the amount of truth contained in each, and accounting for the error that was mingled with it. Thus, just as Newton from the many apparent...

Change in other things1 And it is obviously

Impossible to admit such a conception of soul or mind without depriving ideas, as such, of the position which they have hitherto occupied. But with this a new difficulty arises for, if reality in the full sense of the word be only found in souls or minds, what are we to make of other objects Are we to say that they are un- real appearances Then we shall have escaped the paradox of subjective idealism that the only objects we know are our ideas as states of our subjectivity only to fall into...

And The Idea Of God 201

Put into it by direct experience or by teaching, it is attributed to the memory of a former state of existence, a memory which has become dulled and .obscured by the descent of the spirit into the world of sense. This memory may be revived by reflexion and dialectic, though it cannot be completely restored till death liberates the soul from the body and its affections. The soul, therefore, is to be conceived as remaining unchanged in its essential nature through all the processes of birth and...

And Their Systematic Unity 115

Elements, but a transparent and unchanging unity. But, as such, it is invisible, and cannot be presented to sense or imagination, but only grasped by the intelligence and the intelligence which grasps it must itself be of kindred nature to it. Furthermore, even the intelligence can only grasp such a unity when it withdraws into itself from the confusions of sehse which distract and disturb its pure activity. For when in its perception of things it uses the body as its instrument, apprehending...

The Theory Of Ideas 191

To a further result, which also is recognised by Plato. As we have seen, Plato requires us to conceive the idea as the unity of the opposite principles of the Eleatics and the Heracliteans, and, therefore, as com-bining in itself unity and difference, permanence and change. This, however, means that an idea must be conceived as a self-determining or active principle since only that which is self-determined can be said to transcend these oppositions, to maintain its unity in difference and its...

Mem I 4

A theory of the universe at all, was disposed to think of it in the same way as he thought of the moral life of man. But he rather put aside all such ambitious designs and, except in this one place, he is represented as confining himself entirely to the sphere of ethics. And even ethics was for him not so much a science, as an art of life. Socrates was thus, as it were, a philosopher by accident, one who took to philosophy to satisfy not a speculative but a practical want, living in an age of...

And The Idea Of God 210

The New Testament God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. And perhaps this is the one argument for immortality, to which much weight can be attached. It appears, then, that Plato's proof of the immortality of the soul ultimately resolves itself into the ontological argument for the being of God or rather, we should say, that it is what that argument becomes when freed from its dualistic presuppositions. In other words, it is a regressive argument, which carries us back to an ultimate...