Preface ix

Abbreviations xi

Introduction 1

Part One What is Apocalyptic? 7

1. Knowledge of the Divine Mysteries through Revela tion 9

Daniel and Revelation 11

Apocalyptic Material in Judaism and Christianity 14

2. Apocalyptic and Eschatology 23 Apocalyptic and Rabbinic Eschatologies 29 Transcendent Eschatology 37 The Qumran War Scroll and the Synoptic Apocalypse 38

3. Apocalypse and Apocalyptic 49

The Apocalypse 49

Types of Visions 52

Apocalyptic Imagery 58

Pseudepigraphy 61

Summary 70

Part Two The Content of the Heavenly Mysteries 73

4. What is Above: the Mysteries of God, the Angels, and Astronomy 78

The Heavenly World 78

The Development of an Exalted Angel in Apocalyptic Literature 94 Man and the World Above: the Community and the Glory of

Heaven in the Qumran Scrolls 113

Astronomy 120

5. What is Below: Man and his World 124

Enoch's Journeys through the Universe 124

The Lot of Man 126

6. What Had Happened Previously: the Interest in Past

History in Apocalyptic 136

The History of Israel 136

The Creation of the World 146

7. What is to Come 156 The Last Stages of the Present Age 156 The Climax of History 160 Messianic Belief 176 The Son of Man 178

Part Three Towards an Understanding of the Origins of Apocalyptic and the Dates of the Apocalypses 191

8. A Survey of Recent Study on the Origins of

Apocalyptic 193

9. An Attempt to Elucidate the Origins of Apocalyptic

Visions 214

Excursus: Visionary Experience and Pseudonymity 240

10. Dating the Apocalypses 248

Part Four The Esoteric Tradition in Early Rabbinic

Judaism 269

11. The Meditation of Rabban Johanan Ben Zakkai and his Circle on the Chariot-Chapter 282

12. The Problems posed by the Esoteric Tradition in the

Time of Rabbi Akiba 306

The Later Mystical Tradition 340

Part Five Apocalyptic in Early Christianity 349

13. Reports of Visions in Early Christian Literature to

AD 200 358

The Gospels 358

The Acts of the Apostles 368

The Pauline Letters 374

Extra-Canonical Writings 386

The Evidence of Montanist Visions and the Passio Perpetuae 392

14. Revelation 403 Date and Setting 403 The Composition of the Book of Revelation 413 The Message of Revelation 423

Conclusion 443

Notes 449

Bibliography 521

Index of Ancient Sources 546

Index of Subjects 555

Index of Authors 558

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