Literature

An obvious problem, when using literary evidence in order to collect references to a speciWc theme, is the context to which these references belong. The researcher must be able to separate the wider argument which the speciWc reference serves from the reference itself, and to determine the degree to which the reference was distorted for the purposes of the author's argument.

A further problem is whether one should include terms not denoting animal sacrifice, but which, however, are related to animal sacrifice. References to temples have not been used in this book, as they do not explicitly concern animal sacrifice, even if they constitute implicit evidence for the existence of cult, which could not be other than sacrificial. Whenever a reference to a feast is made by any of our sources, the reference has been included only when it is accompanied by the specification that the feast follows a sacrifice (dvala), as in the following passage from Strabo (10.5.11):43 'Tenos has no large city, but it has the temple of Poseidon, a great temple in a sacred precinct outside the city, a spectacle worth seeing. In it have been built great banquet-halls (hestiatoria)—an indication of the multitude of neighbours who oVer sacriWce together there (synthyontes) and take part with the inhabitants of Tenos in celebrating the Poseidonian festival (Loeb tr. modified, my emphasis).' In fact, such references to feasts serve as conWrmation ofthe fact that, when we come across the Greek term dvaia alone, animal sacrifice is implied.

Sometimes we may not come across the term dvaia, but it is certain that the sacriWce mentioned is that of an animal; such cases are the following: distinct reference to divine or heroic honours, because we have no evidence that this distinction could function in a

43 This method of mine might result in an overlap with the texts studied by Pauline Schmitt-Pantel. But hers is a different way of reading the texts, since she only focuses on the occurrence of words denoting feasts, independently of a connection with sacrifices, which certainly exists, as she implies in Schmitt-Pantel (1992), 6-11.

non-animal sacrifice. Heroic honours are denoted either by the specification n^av a>s Ipwa or by ¿vayi^eiv/Kvayioy-os'^ the occurrence of the verb Karapxopai, because, as we have seen (section A1), this verb is used in connection with an animal sacrifice in earlier sources.

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