The Hebrew tribe of Abraham gained historical importance only when it established contact with the eighteenth ruling dynasty in Egypt, in the fifteenth century B.C. The marriage that took place between Sarah, the poor Hebrew woman, and Pharaoh Tuthmose III, the mightiest of all the ancient kings, produced the tribe of Israel, fathered by the Egyptian king and adopted by Abraham the Patriarch. Events in the later life of Sarah's descendents show that they never forgot their royal ancestor. But it was the dreamer Joseph, arriving there as a slave, who soon became Pharaoh's minister and his Lieutenant of the Chariots, the strongest man in the country after the king.
Another marriage took place between a Hebrew descendant and a member of the eighteenth royal dynasty. Amenhotep III married Tiye, Joseph's daughter, and insisted on making her his queen, against the customs of his country. This marriage was to produce King Akhenaten who has been described as the first individual in history, recognized as Moses of the holy books, the first monotheist to claim one God with no image for all people. This doctrine, though, did not become popular amongst Akhenaten's followers, as it was a sudden change that needed more time to be absorbed by ordinary people. When the army attempted a coup against the monotheistic king, he was advised by Aye, brother of his mother Queen Tiye and Commander of his Chariots, to abdicate the throne in favor of his son Tutankhaten.
While Akhenaten was living in exile with a few of his close followers among the bedouin of southern Sinai, Tutankhaten was trying to reform
the monotheistic doctrine to bring it nearer to his people. The young king's reformation proved to be of historical importance, for their beliefs are still living with us until this day. He recognized the eternal Egyptian belief of the spiritual element in man's existence, which continues to live after his death. So Aten became the God of death, as he was the God of life. He also recognized the degrees of spiritual existence, recognizing the old deities as angels in the heaven of God, and mediators between man and the deity. Introducing his new reformation as he reopened the temples closed by his father, he even changed his name to Tutankhamun.
Neither Tutankhamun nor his religious teaching were given a chance to work. He was killed by Panehesy, the orthodox Atenite priest, when he attempted to bring his father back from his exile in Sinai and convert his followers to the new beliefs. Tutankhamun's death led to the collapse of the Amarna rule, and the end of its religious reformation, as many attempts were made, both in Egypt and among the Israelites, to wipe out the memory of Akhenaten and his successor Tutankhamun— or Moses and his successor Joshua/Jesus. While the Egyptian authorities forbade the names or deeds of these kings to be mentioned in any written document, the Israelite scribes who wrote the accounts of these events made a big effort to cover up the killing of Joshua as well as to hide any blood connection between Israel and the Egyptian royal family. What betrayed them, though, is the fact that they had to replace Abraham, the adopting father, by King David (Tuthmosis III), the real father of Israel. Writing the account of a minor tribal ruler who lived in Canaan in the early part of the tenth century B.C. and fought many battles with the invading Philistines, the Hebrew scribes included the account of the Israelite real ancestor, who established the only empire between the Nile and the Euphrates.
In spite of the attempts to cover it up, the memory of Joshua/Jesus lived through a series of Israelite prophets who eventually established the Essene community following the return from the Babylonian Exile. It lived also in Egypt within the Osiris and Hermes Trismegistus cults that produced the Gnostic Christian movement by the start of the Christian era.
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