Israelite Chronology

c. 1480 B.C. Abraham and his wife, Sarah, make their way from Canaan to Egypt where he introduces her as his sister. Tuthmosis III (DAVID) (c. 1490-1436 B.C.) marries her. On learning that Sarah is another man's wife, he sends her and Abraham back to Canaan, where she gives birth to Isaac, Pharaoh's son.

c. 1413 B.C. Joseph the Patriarch (YUYA)—the grandson of Isaac and the son of Jacob—is sold into slavery in Egypt by his jealous half-brothers during the last days of the reign of Amenhotep II (c. 1436-1413 B.C.). He is thought to have been later appointed as a minister to Tuthmosis IV (c. 1413-1405 B.C.) and to his son and successor, Amenhotep III (SOLOMON) (c. 1405-1367 B.C.).

c. 1405 B.C. Amenhotep III marries his infant sister, Sitamun, in order to inherit the throne, as was the Egyptian custom, but shortly afterward marries Tiye, the daughter of Joseph, and makes her rather than Sitamun his Great Royal Wife (queen). Early in the reign of Amenhotep III Joseph is given permission to bring his father, Jacob, his halfbrothers and the rest of the tribe of Israel down from Canaan to join him, and they are settled at Goshen in the Kantara area east of the Delta—outside Egypt proper because Asiatic shepherds have been anathema to Egyptians since the earlier invasion and century-long rule by the Hyksos.

250 Appendix 3: Israelite Chronology c. 1395 B.C. Akhenaten (MOSES) is born to Amenhotep III and Tiye at the frontier fortress city of Zarw. As he is not the son of the royal heiress, Sitamun, he poses a threat to the Eighteenth Dynasty. His father therefore gives the mid-wives orders to kill the child if it is a boy. On learning of this, Tiye sends her son by water to the safe guardianship of her Israelite relations at Goshen.

c. 1378 B.C. Akhenaten, aged about 16, makes his first appearance at Thebes, the capital in upper Egypt.

c. 1378 B.C. Akhenaten becomes co-regent with his father. In order further to secure his right to the throne, Queen Tiye arranges for him to marry his half-sister, Nefertiti, the daughter of Sitamun, the royal heiress.

c. 1375 B.C. The building of temples to Akhenaten's monotheistic God, Aten, at Karnak and Thebes (modern Luxor) in upper Egypt arouses such hostility that Akhenaten's mother, Queen Tiye, suggests he should build a new capital for himself at Tell el-Amarna, roughly halfway between Thebes and modern Cairo.

c. 1367 B.C. On the death of his father, Akhenaten becomes sole ruler and shuts down the temples of the ancient gods of Egypt. This arouses such increased hostility that, in 1363 B.C., he is forced to proclaim his brother, Semenkhkare, as co-regent.

c. 1361 B.C. Warned by his uncle, Aye (EPHRAIM and JOSEPH OF ARIMATHAEA), that his life is in danger, Akhenaten abdicates and flees to Sinai with a handful of followers, among them Panehesy, chief priest of Aten at Amarna, who is also named as PINHAS (Talmud) and PHINEHAS (Old Testament). Semenkhkare survives this abdication by at most a few months, possibly only a few days. Akhenaten is succeeded on the throne by his son, Tutankhamun.

c. 1361 B.C. Tutankhamun (JESUS), aged 10, comes to the throne as Tutankhaten.

He attempts to create a compromise between Aten and the ancient gods of Egypt, and in his Year 4 changes his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun.

Appendix 3: Israelite Chronology 251

c. 1352 B.C. Tutankhamun makes his way to Sinai to try to persuade the Atenists that they can return to Egypt and live there in peace if they accept that different people have different perceptions of God and how he should be worshipped. He is tortured and hanged by the priest Panehesy for what is seen as a betrayal of his father's religious beliefs. Aye, the second son of Joseph, and, as head of the army, the most powerful man in Egypt at the time, claims the body of Tutankhamun and buries his remains in the Valley of the Kings.

c. 1352 B.C. Aye rules for four years before disappearing mysteriously.

c. 1348 B.C. Aye is succeeded by Horemheb, the biblical Pharaoh of the Oppression, who is an army general and obtains his right to the throne by marrying Queen Nefertiti's sister, Mutnezmet.

c. 1335 B.C. The death of Horemheb sees the start of a new dynasty, the nineteenth, when he is succeeded by his elderly chief minister, Ramses I, the king "who knew not Joseph." On hearing the news, Akhenaten returns to Egypt from Sinai to try to reclaim his throne but fails because of Ramses I's control of the army. He then leaves in the Exodus, accompanied by his followers and his mother's Israelite family. After uniting with bedouin allies, the Shasu (the Midianites of the Bible), they eventually head for Canaan.

c. 1333 B.C. On coming to the throne in succession to his father, Seti I sets out in pursuit of Akhenaten (MOSES) and his followers. Akhenaten is among those who die in the heavy slaughter that ensues—and those of his followers who survive begin their years of wandering in the wilderness.

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