Exodus

Tutankhamun was succeeded in 1352 B.C. by Aye (Ephraim), his great-uncle, protector and, ultimately, the avenger of his death. It was only four years before Aye, too, disappeared mysteriously from the scene, to be replaced by Horemheb (c. 1348-1335 B.C.), an army general, who secured his right to the throne by marrying Mutnezmet, the sister of Nefertiti. We find Horemheb mentioned in the Old Testament as a new king over Egypt which knew not Joseph (Exodus 1 8), a description that cannot be...

Coat Of Many Colors

While Tuthmosis III was creating the richest and most powerful empire the world had yet seen and at the same time establishing his own enduring reputation as the greatest of all the Pharaohs Sarah and her descendants were leading a nomadic life in Canaan. Tents provided simple homes and protection against the often harsh elements. Marriages were arranged, children born, the dead buried. The rhythm of their days was set by trying to coax a living from the unpromising soil and caring for their...

Conclusion

As we can see now, the historical core of the Bible accounts, for both the Old and New Testaments, came from Egypt. All the main characters of the Bible are directly related to the Tuthmosside dynasty that ruled Egypt between the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries B.C. David the King and Abraham the Patriarch were contemporaries, who shared the same wife, Sarah, and became the ancestors of the Israelite tribe, closely related to the Egyptian royal family. It was during this period, too, that...

Introduction

Until the eighteenth century the Age of Enlightenment, which sought to apply critical and rational thought to assumptions previously taken for granted the principal sources of Western knowledge about the history of the world and mankind were the Old and New Testaments. The Book of Genesis, the first in the Old Testament, told how God created the universe in six days and rested on the seventh. At the center of this universe was planet Earth. It was perceived for many centuries as a flat entity...

Thegospelmakers

The statement that the historical Jesus was killed by a priest named Panehesy in the fourteenth century B.C. will be greeted with varying emotions by the millions of Christians throughout the world who accept the orthodox belief that he lived, suffered and died in the first century A.D. As we shall see in the next chapter, the early Church Fathers believed that Jesus appeared twice in two different periods of time. The first appearance, which they construed as a spiritual preexistence, they...

Glossary

Akkadian Semitic language that appeared in northern Mesopotamia in the third millennium B.C., and later became the general official language for all Mesopotamia and the Levant during the second millennium, before being replaced by Aramaic from the ninth century B.C. Amun The god of Thebes and one of the most important deities of Egypt, whose temple at Karnak is the best surviving religious complex in Egypt. Aramaic The language used in the Levant from the ninth century B.C., and in Palestine in...

The Nag Hammadi Library

The Nag Hammadi library, discovered in Upper Egypt in 1945, is a collection of religious texts that vary from each other in their original date and authorship. They are written in Coptic (Egyptian language in Greek) and belonged to an Egyptian Gnostic-Christian community. It was hidden in a cave near the town of Nag Hammadi some time after the burning of the Alexandrian library in A.D. 391. The collected texts were found in 13 Codices, now in the Coptic Museum in Cairo, as well as another...

The Chosen People

AND God said unto Abraham, as for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be, And I will bless her and give thee a son also of her . . . and she shall be a mother of nations kings of people shall be of her. More than 50 centuries ago, from their very early history, Egyptians believed that a human being consisted of spiritual as well as physical elements. They regarded death as the departure of the spiritual element from the body but also believed, provided...

Israelite Chronology

Abraham and his wife, Sarah, make their way from Canaan to Egypt where he introduces her as his sister. Tuthmosis III (DAVID) (c. 1490-1436 B.C.) marries her. On learning that Sarah is another man's wife, he sends her and Abraham back to Canaan, where she gives birth to Isaac, Pharaoh's son. c. 1413 B.C. Joseph the Patriarch (YUYA) the grandson of Isaac and the son of Jacob is sold into slavery in Egypt by his jealous half-brothers during the last days of the reign of Amenhotep II...

The Second Renaissance

Following the assassination of Julius Caesar on the steps of the Senate in 44 B.C., his two Roman successors, Octavian and Mark Antony, eventually split and had to tight each other in battle. When the two Roman generals faced each other in 31 B.C. at the port of Actium on the western shore of Greece, they were representing the two most important cities of the time. While Octavian was defending Rome, Antony was fighting for Alexandria. And although Rome won the war and became the supreme...

The House Of David

The task of identifying the historical David is complicated from the outset by the fact that the Old Testament provides us with two contrasting Davidic characters who cannot have been the same person. One is a warrior king who lived c. 1500 B.C. the second is a tribal chief generally agreed by biblical scholars to have lived from 1000 to 960 B.C., ruled over the traditional Promised Land from Dan in the north to Beersheba in the south of the Israel-Judaean upland and spent most of his life in...

The Creed

One of the principal concerns of the early Church Fathers, having sought to establish their apostolic succession through Peter, had been to lay down a Creed. Such a Creed was needed to unify widely scattered communities whose competing groups were advocating rival theologies and supporting different understandings of Christianity. It was also required to combat the teaching of their principal opponents, the Gnostics, who, as we have seen, did not accept the distinction between priests and laity...

The Roots Of Messamcbelef

One of the important influences in shaping modern Christianity was the fusion of two theologies, Israelite and Egyptian. It is essential that we understand what earlier peoples believed in order to appreciate the contribution made by their beliefs to the emergence of orthodox Christianity. At the heart of the teaching of Moses, as of Akhenaten, was the existence of only one God. The Egyptians worshipped a plethora of gods, but Messianic beliefs, the promise of eternal life and the importance to...

The Suffering Servant

If Jesus is not a mythical figure and it has never been suggested that he appeared physically after the first half of the first century A.D. it follows that we must seek his historical identity in an earlier century. In this quest it is possible to follow two paths, one a documentary trail that includes the Bible, the teaching of the early Christian Church and Jewish literature the other the mass of evidence available today about Egyptian history as a result of the work in recent times of...

Theroyalbirth Of Moses

The account of the birth of Moses in the opening chapters of the Book of Exodus is a classic example of how the true course of events can become distorted when a story, as in this case, has been the subject of a long oral tradition before being set down in writing. The first chapter of the Book of Exodus introduces an immediate note of confusion. It suggests that the birth of Moses coincided with a number of events that we know from Egyptian historical sources did not occur until more than half...

Paul And Peter

The course of ecclesiastical history in the first 50 years of the Christian era has been the subject of considerable confusion, resulting from a number of misapprehensions. Principal among these are that no Christians existed for Paul to persecute before a.d. 30 or 33, the two dates given in the gospels for the Crucifixion that the gospels are historical works whereas their real purpose is theological that Paul was converted on the road to Damascus and learned his teaching from the Jerusalem...

Armageddon

The account at Karnak of these various wars, copied from the daily records of the scribe who accompanied the army on its campaigns, serves to provide from Egyptian historical sources considerable additional light on the identity of the historical David, and to show how the events of his reign were adapted by Hebrew scribes to fit the reign of a tribal chief who lived five centuries later. They include the significance of the battleground Armageddon how Jerusalem came to be known as the city of...

The Holy Family

Tutankhamun was described in his tomb, as we saw earlier, as the eldest son of Aten in Heaven. The young king-to-be was given the name Tut-ankh-aten when he was born. The three elements in his birth name Tut (image), ankh (the Egyptian cross, the symbol of life) and Aten (the Egyptian equivalent of Adonai, the Lord in Hebrew) mean that it is to be translated as the living image of the Lord. Thus he was looked upon as the Son of God from the time of his birth or perhaps even before it, as it was...

The Brazen Serpent

If Moses and Akhenaten are the same person and Moses did not lead the Israelites in their Exodus from Egypt until a quarter of a century later, it follows that he must have survived the threat of revolution and possible assassination that caused him to abdicate and flee to the safety of Sinai. However, this has been the subject of as much scholarly debate as whether or not he shared a co-regency with his father, Amenhotep III. The tomb prepared for Akhenaten, with the doorway facing roughly...

Joseph The Patriarch

After studying the Bible and Egyptian history for a quarter of a century in the hope of establishing a link between a major biblical and historical figure, I shared the general view, which held that Yuya, a non-Egyptian, was not of any special importance. It was only in what in retrospect seems a moment of inspiration that I changed my view. It happened one night when, unable to sleep, I made myself a pot of tea and sat down to read, as I often did, the Old Testament. The claim by Joseph the...

The Sacrificial Victim

Nefertiti Akhenaten Hieroglyph

The two paths we have followed until now the documentary evidence on the one, back through the centuries from the start of the Christian era, the Egyptian historical evidence on the other, down through the centuries have both brought us to the same point in history, the fourteenth century B.C. This was the time of Moses receiving the Lord's commandments and appointing Joshua to be his successor, on the one hand, and Akhenaten leading the Amarna religious revolution and appointing Tutankhamun to...

The Wisdom Of Solomon

The task of identifying the historical Solomon is complicated not only by the biblical red herrings we have already looked at, but by the fact that we have no historical record of a king of that name. It is only when we match in detail the Old Testament account of his exploits with the reign of Amenhotep III that it becomes clear we are dealing with the same person. The actual name Solomon derives from the Semitic word salaam and means safety or peace. Other than a minor military operation in...

Tellelamarna

Egypt 1364bc

At Amarna the cliffs of the high desert recede from the river, leaving a great semicircle about eight miles long and three miles broad. The bright yellow sand slopes gently down to the river. Huge boundary stelae, marking the limits of the city and recording the story of its foundation, were carved in the surrounding cliffs. one of them, stressing that Akhenaten Moses looked upon Aten as his father, read I shall make Akhetaten Amarna for Aten my father in this place . . . Akhetaten extends from...

The One God And His Prophet

Scholars generally accept that Akhenaten Moses was in his teens when he made his first appearance at Thebes in 1378 B.C. This dating agrees with his having been born at Zarw in 1394 B.C. At the time he arrived in Thebes he was still known by the name he had been given at birth, Amenhotep. We know very little of his early life. There is no evidence that during his childhood he spent any time at Memphis, where his father, Amenhotep III, had his main residence and where the heirs apparent were...

Ahmed Osman

In Christianity An Ancient Egyptian Religion author Ahmed Osman contends that the roots of Christian belief spring not from Judaea but from Egypt. He compares the chronology of the Old Testament and its factual content with ancient Egyptian records to show that the major characters of the Hebrew scriptures including Solomon, David, Moses, and Joshua are based on Egyptian historical figures. He further suggests that not only were these personalities and the stories associated with them...