1. Phillip E. Hammond, "In Search of a Protestant Twentieth Century: American Power and Religion Since 1900," Review of Religious Research 24 (1983): 281-94.
3. The best study is Jon Ruthven, On the Cessation of the Charismata: The Protestant Polemic on PostbiblicalMiracles (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993).
4. "Jim Crow," a shabbily dressed rural black played by a blackfaced white artist, had become a standard character in minstrel shows in the early 1830s. The best study ofJim Crow laws is Leon F. Litwack, Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998). Such laws were finally repealed by the Civil Rights Act of 1965.
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