The Bible And Protestantism

1. Ulrich Luz, "Was heisst 'sola scriptura' heute? Ein Hilferuf für das protestantische Schriftprinzip," Evangelische Theologie 57 (1997): 28-35.

2. On Calvin's views on this matter, see H. Jackson Forstman, Word and Spirit: Calvin's Doctrine of Biblical Authority (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1962).

3. Calvin's analysis merits close consideration; see John D. Morrison, "John Calvin's Christological Assertion of Word Authority in the Context of Sixteenth-Century Ecclesiological Polemics," Scottish Journal of Theology 45 (1993): 465-86. For a related approach that stresses the "authority of God," see N. T. Wright, Scripture and the Authority of God (London: SPCK, 2005), 17-25.

4. Stephen Charles Neill, Crises of Belief (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1984), 23.

5. Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics, 14 vols. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1936-75), 11/2:52-54.

6. Frederick Stopp, "'Verbum Domini Manet in Aeternum': The Dissemination of a Reformation Slogan, 1522-1904," in Essays in German Language, Culture, and Society, edited by Siegbert Salomon Prawer, R. Hinton Thomas, Leonard Wilson Forster, and Roy Pascal (London: University of London Institute of Germanic Studies, 1969), 123-35.

7. Their Catholic opponents wryly suggested that the words meant Verbum Domini manet in Ärmeln—"the word of the Lord stays on sleeves."

8. For a rich account of this idea, see John Webster, "Biblical Theology and the Clarity of Scripture," in Out of Egypt: Biblical Theology and Biblical Interpreta-

tion, edited by Craig Bartholomew (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster Press, 2004), 352-84. See also James P. Callahan, "Claritas Scripturae: The Role of Perspicuity in Protestant Hermeneutics," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 39 (i996): 353-72.

9. Beth Kreitzer, Reforming Mary: Changing Images of the Virgin Mary in Lutheran Sermons of the Sixteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). For Zwingli, see Emidio Campi, Zwingli und Maria: Eine reformationsgeschichtliche Studie (Zurich: TVZ Theologischer Verlag, 1997).

10. See especially Beverly R. Gaventa and Cynthia L. Rigby, eds., Blessed One: Protestant Perspectives on Mary (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2002); Tim Perry, Mary for Evangelicals: Towards an Understanding of the Mother of Our Lord (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2006).

11. H. D. McDonald, Theories of Revelation: An Historical Study 1700-1960 (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1979); W. J. Abraham, The Divine Inspiration of Holy Scripture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981).

12. K. R. Trembath, Evangelical Theories ofBiblical Inspiration (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).

13. A. C. Sundberg, "The Bible Canon and the Christian Doctrine of Inspiration," Interpretation 29 (1975): 352-71; Paul Achtemeier, The Inspiration of Scripture: Problems and Proposals (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1980).

14. For an excellent survey of the debates at the time, see Richard A. Muller and John L. Thompson, eds., Biblical Interpretation in the Era of the Reformation: Essays Presented to David C. Steinmetz in Honor of His Sixtieth Birthday (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1996).

15. For some of these issues, see Hans Heinrich Schmid and Joachim Mehlhausen, eds., Sola scriptura: Das reformatorische Schriftprinzip in der säkularen Welt (Gütersloh: Mohn, 1991); Hans-Ulrich Gehring, Schriftprinzip und Rezeptionsästhetik: Rezeption in Martin Luthers Predigt und bei Hans Robert Jauss (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener, 1999).

16. Stuart Murray, Biblical Interpretation in the Anabaptist Tradition (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 2000).

17. Timothy George and David S. Dockery, eds., Theologians of the Baptist Tradition (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 2001).

18. See, for example, the excellent studies of Robert Friedmann, The Theology of Anabaptism: An Interpretation (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1973); A. James Reimer, Mennonites and Classical Theology: Dogmatic Foundations for Christian Ethics (Kitchener, ON: Pandora, 2001).

19. For comment on this specific approach, see the classic study by H. R. McAdoo, The Spirit of Anglicanism (London: A. & C. Black, 1965).

20. Francis White, A Treatise of the Sabbath Day (London: Richard Badger, 1635), 11-12.

21. William Whitaker, A Disputation on Holy Scripture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1849), 411.

22. David C. Steinmetz, "Luther and Calvin on Church and Tradition," in Luther in Context (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), 85-97.

23. David W. Lotz, "Sola Scriptura: Luther on Biblical Authority," Interpretation 35 (1981): 258-73.

24. Luchesius Smits, Saint Augustin dans l'oeuvre de Jean Calvin (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1956).

25. See the important study of Joseph Ratzinger, "On the Interpretation of the Tri-dentine Decree on Tradition," in Revelation and Tradition, edited by Karl Rahner and Joseph Ratzinger (New York: Herder & Herder, 1966), 50-68.

26. See Irena Backus, Historical Method and Confessional Identity in the Era of the Reformation (1378-1615) (Leiden: Brill, 2003). See also the classic study by Peter Fraenkel, Testimonia Patrum: The Function of the Patristic Argument in the Theology of Philip Melanchthon (Geneva: Droz, 1961).

27. Anne Hudson, The Premature Reformation: Wycliff ite Texts and Lollard History (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988).

28. See Neues Testament und Psalter in der Sprache Martin Luthers für Leser von Heute (Hamburg: Friedrich Wittig, 1982).

29. The best study remains David Daniell, Wiliam Tyndale (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994).

30. See the superb account of this process in Cameron A. MacKenzie, The Battle for the Bible in England, 1557-1582 (New York: Peter Lang, 2002).

31. This is the thesis of David S. Katz, God's Last Words: Reading the English Bible from the Reformation to Fundamentalism (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2004), x-xi.

32. For an introduction to this somewhat ill-tempered debate, see D. A. Carson, The King James Version Debate: A Plea for Realism (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1979).

33. For the issues, see Peter J. Thuesen, In Discordance with the Scriptures: American Protestant Battles over Translating the Bible (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

34. For specific issues, see Joseph A. Burgess, "Lutheran Interpretation of Scripture," in The Bible in the Churches: How Various Christians Interpret the Scriptures, edited by Kenneth Hagen (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1998), 101-28; Marion L. Soards, "Reformed Interpretation of Scripture," in ibid., 159-74.

35. For some aspects of this debate, see J. J. G. Jansen, The Interpretation of the Koran in Modern Egypt (Leiden: Brill, 1980), 60-69.

36. See the material in Albert Hourani, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age (1798-1939) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

37. Similar debates have, of course, taken place within Judaism; see David W. Halivni, "Plain Sense and Applied Meaning in Rabbinic Exegesis," in The Return to Scripture in Judaism and Christianity: Essays in Postcritical Scriptural Interpretation, edited by Peter Ochs (New York: Paulist Press, 1993), 107-41.

38. Donald W. Dayton, "The Battle for the Bible: Renewing the Inerrancy Debate," Christian Century (1976): 976-80.

39. J. I. Packer, "Fundamentalism' and the Word of God (London: InterVarsity Press, 1959), 101-14. For an alternative view, see Kathryn E. Tanner, "Theology and the Plain Sense," in Scriptural Authority and Narrative Interpretation: Essays on the Occasion of the Sixty-fifth Birthday of Hans Frei, edited by Garrett Green (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987), 59-78.

40. David F. Wright, "Accommodation and Barbarity in John Calvin's Old Testament Commentaries," in Understanding Poets and Prophets, edited by A. Graeme

Auld (Sheffield, UK: JSOT Press, 1993), 413-27. More generally, see Stephen D. Benin, The Footprints of God: Divine Accommodation in Jewish and Christian Thought (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993).

41. Kevin J. Vanhoozer, "The Reader in New Testament Interpretation," in Hearing the New Testament: Strategies for Interpretation, edited by Joel B. Green (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1995), 301-28.

42. For different perspectives on this debate, see the material gathered in Eugene F. Rogers, Theology and Sexuality: Classic and Contemporary Readings—Blackwell Readings in Modern Theology (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).

43. Marcel Simon, "From Greek Hairesis to Christian Heresy," in Early Christian Literature and the Classical Intellectual Tradition, edited by William R. Schoedel and Robert L. Wilken (Paris: Beauchesne, 1979), 101-16.

44. H. E. W. Turner, The Pattern of Christian Truth: A Study in the Relations Between Orthodoxy and Heresy in the Early Church (London: Mowbray, 1954), 81-94.

45. For magisterial surveys of this development, see Robert M. Grant, Heresy and Criticism: The Search for Authenticity in Early Christian Literature (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1993); Arland J. Hultgren, The Rise of Normative Christianity (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1994).

46. The best study of this movement is Rowan Williams, Arius: Heresy and Tradition, 2nd ed. (London: SCM Press, 2001).

47. See the important study by T. E. Pollard, Johannine Christology and the Early Church (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).

48. See the impressive list of novateurs provided by Gabriel Naudé, Apologie pour tous les grands personages qui sont faussement soupçonnez de magie (Paris, 1625).

49. Hence the title of the work by Carlo Ginzburg, The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), which explores the intellectual world of this era.

50. For Melanchthon's important statement of this position, see the classic study by Peter Fraenkel, Testimonia Patrum. This analysis has been extended in Backus, Historical Method and Confessional Identity.

51. For details, see Massimo Firpo, "The Italian Reformation and Juan de Valdés," Sixteenth Century Journal 27 (1996): 353-64.

52. Other controversies of relevance here include the dispute between the Armin-ians and the Gomarists; see Jonathan Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477-1806 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 411-63.

53. See Maurice Wiles, Archetypal Heresy: Arianism Through the Centuries (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996).

54. Oscar Kenshur, "Scriptural Deism and the Politics of Dryden's Religio Laici" English Literary History 54 (1987): 869-92.

55. See especially Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi and Michael Argyle, Acquiring Religious Beliefs: Socialization and Continuity (London: Routledge, 1997), 97-113.

56. Epitome, 1-8, in Die Bekenntisschriften der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche, 2nd ed. (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1952), 767-69.

57. See, for example, Henry Pickering, Chief Men Among the Brethren (Neptune, NJ: Loizeaux, 1918).

58. See the useful material in Thomas F. Torrance, The School of Faith: The Catechisms of the Reformed Church (London: James Clarke, 1959).

59. For what follows, see Alan P. F. Sell, A Reformed, Evangelical, Catholic Theology: The Contribution of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches, 1875-1982 (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1991), 73-78.

60. W. J. Sparrow-Simpson, Assent to the Articles: A Short History of Subscription to the XXXIX Articles of the Church of England (London: SPCK, 1925).

61. Clive L. Rawlins, William Barclay: The Authorized Biography (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1984).

62. The key work is Antonio Gramsci, Gli intellettuali e l'organizzazione della cultura, 6th ed. (Milan: Giulio Einaudi Editore, 1955). For an introduction, see David Harris, From Class Struggle to the Politics of Pleasure: The Effects of Gramscianism on Cultural Studies (London: Routledge, 1992).

63. Max Weber, "The Sociology of Charismatic Authority," in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, edited by H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (London: Oxford University Press, 1946), 246-52. For a critical assessment of this famous axiom, see Rongfen Wang, "Cäsarismus und Machtpolitik: Eine historisch-biobibliographische Analyse von Max Webers Charismakonzept," Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 55 (2003): 136-51.

64. For the issues in biblical interpretation, see Gale A. Yee, "The Author/Text/ Reader and Power: Suggestions for a Critical Framework for Biblical Studies," in Reading from This Place, vol. 1, Social Location and Biblical Interpretation in the United States, edited by Fernando F. Segovia and Mary Ann Tolbert (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995), 109-18.

65. Sinclair Lewis, Elmer Gantry (New York: Dell, 1954).

66. Karl Barth, "Theology," in God in Action (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1936), 39-57.

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