The Nineteenth Century The Global Expansion Of Protestantism

1. Gustav Warneck, Abriss einer Geschichte der protestantischen Missionen von der Reformation bis auf die Gegenwart: Ein Beitrag zur neueren Kirchengeschichte, 5th ed. (Berlin: Martin Warneck, 1899).

2. The best response is from the Swedish scholar Ingemar Oberg, Luther och värld-smissionen (Abo, Finland: Abo Akademi, 1991). Yet Oberg merely shows that the basic elements of a missionary theology are present in Luther, not that they were assembled and put to use for this purpose by Luther himself or his immediate followers. Although there is no doubt that the basic elements of a missionary theology can be found in the writings of both Luther and Calvin, they were like vestigial organs—present, but not perceived to be useful.

3. For an introduction to his thought, though, sadly, it fails to emphasize this point, see Willem Nijenhuis, Adrianus Saravia (c. 1532-1613): Dutch Calvinist, First Reformed Defender of the English Episcopal Church Order on the Basis of the Ius Divinum (Leiden: Brill, 1980). The Lutheran writer Justinian von Weltz (1621-68) should also be noted as an early example of a Protestant who explicitly advocated missionary work and evangelism.

4. One of the best studies of the motivations for this surge of missionary enthusiasm remains Johannes van den Berg, Constrained by Jesus' Love: An Inquiry into the Motives of the Missionary Awakening in Great Britain in the Period Between 1698and 1815 (Kampen: Kok, 1956).

5. Andrew F. Walls, in The Missionary Movement in Christian History (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1996), speaks of the "fortunate subversion" of the church by such societies (241-54).

6. For a detailed analysis, see Paul William Harris, Nothing but Christ: Rufus Anderson and the Ideology of Protestant Foreign Missions (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

7. The best account is still Richard Lovett, The History of the London Missionary Society, 1795-1895, 2 vols. (London: Oxford University Press, 1899).

8. The best history is Elizabeth Isichei, A History of Christianity in Africa from Antiquity to the Present (London: SPCK, 1995).

9. For the importance of such hymns, see Donald E. Demarey, The Innovation of John Newton (1725-1807): Synergism of Word and Music in Eighteenth-Century Evangelism (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988).

10. J. R. Oldfield, "The Protestant Episcopal Church, Black Nationalists, and Expansion of the West African Missionary Field, 1851-71," Church History 31 (1988): 31-45.

11. Line Nyhagen Predelli, "Sexual Control and the Remaking of Gender: The Attempt of Nineteenth-Century Protestant Norwegian Women to Export Western Domesticity to Madagascar,"Journal of Women's History 12 (2000): 88-103.

12. The CPSA was sympathetic to the Oxford Movement, which was fundamentally a Catholic renewal movement within the Church of England that sought to deny, or at least downplay, the Protestant origins and character of that church.

13. Stephen Charles Neill, A History of Christianity in India, 2 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984-85).

14. Werner Raupp, Mission in Quellentexten: Geschichte der Deutschen Evangelischen Mission von der Reformation bis zur Weltmissionskonferenz Edinburgh 1910 (Erlangen: Verlag der Evangelisch-Lutherischen Mission, 1990).

15. For an excellent account of the background, see D. Dennis Hudson, Protestant Origins in India: Tamil Evangelical Christians, 1706-1835 (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000).

16. John Kaye, Kaye's and Malleson's History of the Indian Mutiny of 1857-1858 (London: Longman, Green & Co., 1889), 5: 279-95. "The mutiny of the army and the insurrection in the provinces ... were the natural consequences of an attempt to govern a great Eastern empire according to purely Western ideas."

17. For a very critical assessment of these missionaries, see Eric Reinders, Borrowed Gods and Foreign Bodies: Christian Missionaries Imagine Chinese Religion (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004).

18. Joseph Tse-Hei Lee, The Bible and the Gun: Christianity in South China, 18601900, East Asia: History, Politics, Sociology, Culture (New York: Routledge, 2003).

19. Aasulv Lande, Meiji Protestantism in History and Historiography: A Comparative Study of Japanese and Western Interpretation of Early Protestantism in Japan (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1989).

20. For discussion of this era, see Allan K. Davidson, "The Interaction of Missionary and Colonial Christianity in Nineteenth-Century New Zealand," Studies in World Christianity 2 (1996): 145-66.

21. For example, see Elizabeth M. Roach, "Transformation of Christian Ritual in the Pacific: Samoan White Sunday," Missiology 16 (1988): 173-82.

22. Karl-Wilhelm Westmeier, "Becoming All Things to All People: Early Moravian Mission to Native North Americans," International Bulletin of Missionary Research 21 (1997): 172-76.

23. Steven J. Crum, "Henry Roe Cloud, a Winnebago Indian Reformer: His Quest for American Indian Higher Education," Kansas History 11 (1988): 171-84.

24. Thomas P. Barr, "The Pottawatomie Baptist Manual Labor Training School," Kansas Historical Quarterly 43 (Winter 1977): 377-431.

25. Charles R. King, "Physician to Body and Soul: Jotham Meeker—Kansas Missionary," Kansas History 17 (Winter 1994-95): 262-73.

26. George A. Schultz, An Indian Canaan: Isaac McCoy and the Vision of an Indian State (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972).

27. Virginia P. Miller, "Silas T. Rand, Nineteenth-Century Anthropologist Among the Micmac,"Anthropologica 22 (1980): 235-49.

28. G. S. Parsonson, "The Literate Revolution in Polynesia," Journal of Pacific History 2 (1967): 39-57.

29. William N. Fenton, "Toward the Gradual Civilization of the Indian Natives: The Missionary and Linguistic Work of Asher Wright (1803-75) Among the Senecas of Western New York," American Philosophical Society Proceedings 199 (1956): 567-81.

30. The best analysis of these factors is John D. Y. Peel, Religious Encounter and the Making of the Yoruba (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000).

31. For example, see John L. Comaroff and Jean Comaroff, Of Revelation and Revolution: Christianity, Colonialism, and Consciousness in South Africa (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

32. See Martin Pabst, Mission und Kolonialpolitik: Die Norddeutsche Missonsgesell-schaft an der Goldküste und in Togo bis zum Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkrieges (Munich: Verlagsgemeinschaft Anarche, 1988); Werner Ustorf, Die Missionsmethode Franz Michael Zahns und der Aufbau kirchlicher Strukturen in Westafrika: Eine missionsgeschichtliche Untersuchung (Erlangen: Verlag der EvangelischLutherischen Mission, 1989).

33. Elizabeth Elbourne, Blood Ground: Colonialism, Missions, and the Contest for Christianity in the Cape Colony and Britain, 1799-1853 (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002).

34. See the evidence assembled in Andrew N. Porter, Religion Versus Empire?: British Protestant Missionaries and Overseas Expansion, 1700-1914 (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2004).

35. Claude E. Stipe, "Anthropologists Versus Missionaries: The Influence of Presup-positions,"American Anthropologist 35 (1980): 165-79.

36. Nigel Barley, The Innocent Anthropologist: Notes from a Mud Hut (London: Penguin Books, 1986), 28-29.

37. Andrew F. Walls, The Cross-Cultural Process in Christian History: Studies in the Transmission and Appropriation of Faith (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2002).

38. See the material gathered in Brian Stanley, ed., Christian Missions and the Enlightenment (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001).

39. See, for example, J. Stanley Friesen, Missionary Responses to Tribal Religions at Edinburgh, 1910 (New York: Peter Lang, 1996).

40. See, for example, the ideas of Christian Keysser, including the critical notion of the Volkskirch—a community based on local social realities and open to the work of the Holy Spirit; see Timothy Yates, Christian Mission in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 34-56.

41. Richard V. Pierard, "Shaking the Foundations: World War I, the Western Allies, and German Protestant Missions," International Bulletin of Missionary Research 22 (1998): 13-19.

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