Protestantism In America

1. For the best survey of the emergence of American Christianity, see Mark A. Noll, The Old Religion in a New World: The History of North American Christianity (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2002).

2. Virginia DeJohn Anderson, New England's Generation: The Great Migration and the Formation of Society and Culture in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

3. For useful studies, see Peter N. Carroll, Puritanism and the Wilderness: The Intellectual Significance of the New England Frontier, 1629-1700 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969); Stephen Foster, The Long Argument: English Puritanism and the Shaping of New England Culture, 1570-1700 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991).

4. Harry S. Stout, The New England Soul: Preaching and Religious Culture in Colonial New England (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

5. See the classic study by Barry R. White, The English Separatist Tradition: From the Marian Martyrs to the Pilgrim Fathers (London: Oxford University Press, 1971).

6. Lazar Ziff, "The Salem Puritans in the 'Free Aire of a New World,'" Huntington Library Quarterly 20 (1956-57): 373-84; John M. Bumstead, "A Well-Bounded Toleration: Church and State in the Plymouth Colony," Journal of Church and State 10 (1968): 265-79.

7. Allen C. Guelzo, Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003), 11.

8. This point is stressed by Louise A. Breen, Transgressing the Bounds: Subversive Enterprises Among the Puritan Elite in Massachusetts, 1630-1692 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001). Her suggestions of alternative outcomes, though historically tentative, reflect the diversity of visions of Puritanism in the region and the fragility of certain balances of power.

9. See Martin E. Marty, Anticipating Pluralism: The Founders' Vision (Providence, RI: John Carter Brown Library, 1986); Edwin S. Gaustad, Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1991).

10. The situation in South Carolina is especially illuminating; see Robert Olwell, Masters, Slaves, and Subjects: The Culture of Power in the South Carolina Low Country, 1740-1790 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998).

11. As pointed out by William G. McLoughlin, Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform: An Essay on Religion and Social Change in America, 1607-1977 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).

12. For an account of this appalling episode, see Frances Hill, A Delusion of Satan: The Full Story of the Salem Witch Trials (New York: Doubleday, 1995).

13. The best study remains Robert G. Pope, The Half-Way Covenant: Church Membership in Puritan New England (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969).

14. For what follows, see Joseph A. Conforti, Jonathan Edwards, Religious Tradition, and American Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995).

15. For comment on this theme, see Linda Munk, "His Dazzling Absence: The Shekinah in Jonathan Edwards," Early American Literature 27 (1992): 1-30.

16. See the study by Frank Lambert, Inventing the "Great Awakening" (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999).

17. Ann Taves, Fits, Trances, and Visions: Experiencing Religion and Explaining Experience from Wesley to James (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999), 34-41.

18. Frank Lambert, "Pedlar in Divinity": George Whitef ield and the Transatlantic Revivals, 1737-1770 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003).

19. For studies, see Robert W. Jenson, America's Theologian: A Recommendation of Jonathan Edwards (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988); Leon Chai, Jonathan Edwards and the Limits of Enlightenment Philosophy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).

20. The best study is Bruce D. Hindmarsh, The Evangelical Conversion Narrative: Spiritual Autobiography in Early Modern England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).

21. See especially Michael McGiffert, God 's Plot: Puritan Spirituality in Thomas Shepard's Cambridge (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994), 42-48. More generally, see Charles Lloyd Cohen, God's Caress: The Psychology of Puritan Religious Experience (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

22. Andrew S. Walmsley, Thomas Hutchinson and the Origins of the American Revolution (New York: New York University Press, 1999).

23. Page Smith, Religious Origins of the American Revolution (Missoula, MT: American Academy of Religion, 1976).

24. Dale S. Kuehne, Massachusetts Congregationalist Political Thought, 1760-1790 (Colombia: University of Missouri Press, 1996). For examples of such sermons, see Marie L. Ahern, The Rhetoric of War: Training Day, the Militia, and the Military Sermon (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1989).

25. John W. Thornton, ed., The Pulpit of the American Revolution: or, The Political Sermons of the Period of 1776 (New York: Franklin, 1970).

26. The religious diversity of the leading figures of the American Revolution is explored in David L. Holmes, The Faiths of the Founding Fathers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

27. For the origins of this animus against religion, see Charles A. Gliozzo, "The Philosophes and Religion: Intellectual Origins of the De-Christianization Movement in the French Revolution," Church History 40 (1971): 273-83.

28. Dale K. Van Kley, The Religious Origins of the French Revolution: From Calvin to the Civil Constitution, 1560-1791 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996).

29. H. J. Eckenrode, Separation of Church and State in Virginia: A Study in the Development of the Revolution (New York: Da Capo Press, 1971).

30. There is a large literature: see John L. Brooke, The Heart of the Commonwealth: Society and Political Culture in Worcester County, Massachusetts, 1713-1861 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989); Randolph A. Roth, The Democratic Dilemma: Religion, Reform, and the Social Order in the Connecticut River Valley of Vermont, 1791-1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); Curtis D. Johnson, Islands of Holiness: Rural Religion in Upstate New York, 1790-1860 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989).

31. Jay P. Dolan, In Search of an American Catholicism: A History of Religion and Culture in Tension (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

32. For the background, see Peter Kolchin, American Slavery, 1619-1877 (New York: Hill and Wang, 2003).

33. The divisions went far beyond traditional denominational disputes. For some of the factors, see Susan Juster and Lisa MacFarlane, eds., A Mighty Baptism: Race, Gender, and the Creation of American Protestantism (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996).

34. James D. Bratt, Antirevivalism in Antebellum America: A Collection of Religious Voices (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2005).

35. The best study is Charles E. Hambrick-Stowe, Charles G. Finney and the Spirit of American Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, i996).

36. See David B. Chesebrough, Charles G. Finney: Revivalistic Rhetoric (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002).

37. See the judgment of William G. McLoughlin, Modern Revivalism: Charles Grandison Finney to Billy Graham (New York: Ronald Press, 1959), 86: "[Finney]

and his followers believed it to be the legitimate function of a revivalist to utilize the laws of mind in order to engineer individuals and crowds into making a choice which was ostensibly based upon free will."

38. Robert Samuel Fletcher, A History of Oberlin College from Its Foundation Through the Civil War, 2 vols. (Oberlin, OH: Oberlin College Press, 1943). On the college's later influence, see John Barnard, From Evangelicalism to Progressivism at Oberlin College, 1866-1917 (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1969).

39. Don Cusic, The Sound of Light: A History of Gospel Music (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1990), 59-60.

40. For what follows, see Christine Leigh Heyrman, Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997).

41. See the excellent analysis in John B. Boles, The Great Revival: Beginnings of the Bible Belt (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1996).

42. Arthur Emery Farnsley, Southern Baptist Politics: Authority and Power in the Restructuring of an American Denomination (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994), 2-10.

43. Paul Harvey, Redeeming the South: Religious Cultures and Racial Identities Among Southern Baptists, 1865-1925 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997), 45-50. It must be pointed out that there appears to have been little attempt by such white supervisors to control antebellum black congregations.

44. William E. Montgomery, Under Their Own Vine and Fig Tree: The African-American Church in the South, 1865-1900 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1993).

45. Richard Carwardine, Evangelicals and Politics in Antebellum America (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993), 80-84.

46. Mary Augustina Ray, American Opinion of Roman Catholicism in the Eighteenth Century (New York: Octagon Books, 1974), 128.

47. For an excellent study, see John T. McGreevy, Catholicism and American Freedom: A History (New York: Norton, 2003).

48. For the background, see Nancy L. Schultz, Fire and Roses: The Burning of the Charlestown Convent, 1834 (New York: Free Press, 2000). Many believed that Beecher's inflammatory preaching contributed to this act of mob violence.

49. John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 (New York: Atheneum, 1963).

50. For the incident and its significance, see Margaret Bendroth, "Rum, Romanism, and Evangelism: Protestants and Catholics in Late Nineteenth-Century Boston," Church History 68 (1999): 627-47.

51. Kathleen Flake, The Politics of American Religious Identity: The Seating of Senator Reed Smoot, Mormon Apostle (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004).

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