War Peace And Disinterest European Protestantism In Crisis 15601800

1. Ernest Renan, "What Is a Nation?," in Nation and Narration, edited by Homi K. Bhabha (London: Routledge, 1990), 8-22, 19.

2. For an excellent analysis, see Nikki Keddie, An Islamic Response to Imperialism: Political and Religious Writings of SayyidJamal al-Din al-Afghani (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983).

3. Robert Bireley, The Refashioning of Catholicism, 1450-1700: A Reassessment of the Counter Reformation (Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1999).

4. R. Po-chia Hsia, The World of Catholic Renewal, 1540-1770, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

5. For the sources of this remarkable work, see Susan Wabuda, "Henry Bull, Miles Coverdale, and the Making of Foxe's Book of Martyrs," in Martyrs andMartyrolo-gies, edited by Diana Wood (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993), 245-58.

6. Peter Lake, "Anti-popery: The Structure of a Prejudice," in Conflict in Early Stuart England: Studies in Religion and Politics, 1603-1642, edited by Richard Cust and Ann Hughs (London: Longman, 1989), 72-106.

7. See David Cressy, Bonfires and Bells: National Memory and the Protestant Calendar in Elizabethan and Stuart England (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1989).

8. The phrase "Wars of the Three Kingdoms" is sometimes used to indicate that the English Civil War also affected Ireland and Scotland. Until the Act of Union (1801), these three countries could not be regarded as a single political entity. For background, see Conrad Russell, The Origins of the English Civil War (Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1973); Norah Carlin, The Causes of the English Civil War (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998).

9. See the analysis in Roxane C. Murph, The English Civil War Through the Restoration in Fiction: An Annotated Bibliography, 1625-1999 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000).

10. See especially the essays gathered in Laura Lunger Knoppers, ed., Puritanism and Its Discontents (Newark, NJ: University of Delaware Press, 2003).

11. For an important study, see Richard McCoy, Alterations of State: Sacred Kingship in the English Reformation (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002).

12. R. E. Giesey, "The Monarchomach Triumvirs: Hotman, Beza, and Mornay," Bibliothèque d'Humanisme et Renaissance 32 (1970): 41-56. For the later development of this point, see W. J. Stankiewicz, Politics and Religion in Seventeenth-Century France: A Study of Political Ideas from the Monarchomachs to Bayle (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976).

13. Dan G. Danner, "The Contribution of the Geneva Bible of 1560 to English Protestantism," Sixteenth Century Journal 12 (1981): 5-18.

14. For an exploration of the central role of the Bible at this time, see Christopher Hill, The English Bible and the Seventeenth-Century Revolution (London: Penguin Books, 1993).

15. For the political background to these negotiations, see Glyn Redworth, The Prince and the Infanta: The Cultural Politics of the Spanish Match (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003).

16. On this fascinating figure, see the classic study of Hugh R. Trevor-Roper, Archbishop Laud, 1573-1645, 3rd ed. (Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1988).

17. The definition of "treason" at this time is not without interest. Originally understood as a personal crime against the person of the monarch, treason was redefined as a crime against an impersonal state. The issue was of special importance in the charge of treason laid against Charles I by Parliament. For an excellent account of this development, see D. Alan Orr, Treason and the State: Law, Politics, and Ideology in the English Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

18. For critical accounts of Cromwell's religious and political significance, see Christopher Hill, God's Englishman: Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (London: Penguin, 2000); Antonia Fraser, Cromwell: Our Chief of Men (London: Phoenix, 2002).

19. See the fascinating study by Robert Thomas Fallon, The Christian Soldier: Religious Tracts Published for Soldiers on Both Sides During and After the English Civil Wars, 1642-1648 (Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2003).

20. The best account is Michael Mendle, The Putney Debates of 1647: The Army, the Levelers, and the English State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

21. For some aspects of the debate, see Graham E. Seel, Regicide and Republic: England, 1603-1660 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

22. Quentin Skinner, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, 2 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978), 2:193.

23. See the older study by Winthrop S. Hudson,John Ponet (1516?—1556), Advocate of Limited Monarchy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942).

24. Others went further: Cromwell, they argued, had simply assumed the role of the king. For the apparent merging of protectoral and monarchical iconography, as reflected in contemporary portraits of Cromwell, see John Cooper, Oliver the First: Contemporary Images of Oliver Cromwell (London: National Portrait Gal-^ 1999).

25. J. Douglas Canfield, Tricksters and Estates: On the Ideology of Restoration Comedy (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997).

26. John Morrill, "Life After Death? The Survival of the Church of England in the Seventeenth Century," History Review 30 (1998): 18-23.

27. For a study, see Alister E. McGrath, In the Beginning: The Story of the King James Bible (New York: Doubleday, 2001).

28. See McCoy, Alterations of State, 108, 135-37.

29. Geoffrey Parker, The Thirty Years' War, rev. ed. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1987).

30. For a study of how such a radicalized social vision arose within English Puritanism at this time, see Nicholas McDowell, The English Radical Imagination: Culture, Religion, and Revolution, 1630-1660 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2003).

31. This is the thesis of Christopher Dawson, The Dividing of Christendom (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1965), 9—11. Cf. his earlier work, The Judgment of the Nations (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1942), 103—4. However, recent studies have stressed that a Christian—rather than a secular—agenda undergirded Locke's approach; see especially Jeremy Waldron, God, Locke, and Equality: Christian Foundations of John Locke's Political Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

32. Ole Peter Grell, Jonathan Irvine Israel, and Nicholas Tyacke, eds., From Persecution to Toleration: The Glorious Revolution and Religion in England (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991).

33. See the analysis in Louis K. Dupre, Passage to Modernity: An Essay in theHerme-neutics of Nature and Culture (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993).

34. See the arguments of Margaret C. Jacob, The Newtonians and the English Revolution, 1689-1720 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1976).

35. See the classic essay of H. R. Trevor-Roper, "Religious Origins of the Enlightenment," in Religion, the Reformation, and Social Change (London: Macmillan, !967^ r93—236.

36. For useful surveys, see F. Ernest Stoeffler, German Pietism During the Eighteenth Century (Leiden: Brill, 1973); Harry Yeide, Studies in Classical Pietism: The Flowering of the Ecclesiola (New York: Peter Lang, 1997).

37. J. Munsey Turner, John Wesley: The Evangelical Revival and the Rise of Methodism in England (Peterborough, UK: Epworth Press, 2002).

38. For the best study of this phenomenon, see Ann Taves, Fits, Trances, and Visions: Experiencing Religion and Explaining Experience from Wesley to James (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999), 13—117.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment