The Shift In Power Calvin And Geneva

1. For the background, see Gabriele Schlütter-Schindler, Der Schmalkaldische Bund und das Problem der causa religionis (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1986).

2. See the comments of Frank Tallett in War and Society in Early Modern Europe, 1495-1715 (London: Routledge, 1992), 51.

3. A series of legends have arisen around this event, none with any reliable historical basis. The best known is that, on being urged to burn Luther's bones to demonstrate he died as a heretic, Charles answered: "He has met his judge. I only wage war on the living, not on the dead."

4. For an excellent study, see Oliver K. Olson, Matthias Flacius and the Survival of Luther's Reform (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2002).

5. Nathan Baruch Rein, "Faith and Empire: Conflicting Visions of Religion in a Late-Reformation Controversy: The Augsburg Interim and Its Opponents, 1548-1550," Journal of the American Academy of Religion 71 (2003): 45-74.

6. See Axel Gotthard, Der Augsburger Religionsfrieden (Münster: Aschendorff, 2004).

7. For details of Lutheranism's expansion into Nordic countries, see Ole Peter Grell, The Scandinavian Reformation: From Evangelical Movement to Institutionalization of Reform (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

8. For reflections on the general issue of nationalism in relation to the Reformation, see Bob Scribner, Roy Porter, and Mikulas Teich, eds., The Reformation in National Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

9. For good analyses, see André Holenstein, "Reformierte Konfessionalisierung und bernischer Territorialstaat," in Territorialstaat und Calvinismus, edited by Meinrad Schaab (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1993), 5-33; Heinrich Richard Schmidt, Dorf und Religion: Reformierte Sittenzucht in Berner Landgemeinden der frühen Neuzeit (Stuttgart: Fischer, 1995).

10. Farel Comité, Guillaume Farel, 1489-1565: Biographie nouvelle (Geneve: Slatkine Reprints, 1978).

11. Henri Delarue, "La Première offensive évangélique à Genève," Bulletin de la Société et d'Archéologie de Genève 9 (1948): 83-102.

12. For a good introduction to Viret, see Georges Bavaud, Le Réformateur Pierre Viret, 1511-1571: Sa théologie (Geneva: Labor et Fides, 1986).

13. The best recent biography is Bernard Cottret, Calvin: A Biography (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000).

14. For an account of the event and theories of the placards' authorship, see Gabrielle Berthoud, Antoine Marcourt: Réformateur et pamphlétaire, du "Livre des marchans" aux Placards de 1534 (Geneva: Droz, 1973).

15. For an analysis of its contents, see Ford Lewis Battles, Analysis of the Institutes of the Christian Religion of John Calvin (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1980).

16. For the best account of the Reformation at Geneva and Calvin's role in its implementation, see Henri Naef, Les Origines de la réforme à Genève, 2 vols. (Geneva: Droz, 1968).

17. Eric Junod, ed., La Dispute de Lausanne (1536): La Théologie réformée après Zwingli et avant Calvin (Lausanne: Presses Centrales Lausanne, 1988).

18. For an excellent analysis of this phase, see William G. Naphy, Calvin and the Consolidation of the Genevan Reformation (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2003).

19. Albert Autin, L'Institution chrétienne de Calvin (Paris: Malfere, 1929).

20. For a good discussion of this point, see Alexandre Ganoczy, The Young Calvin (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1987), 137-68.

21. For the importance of this point, see A. N. S. Lane, John Calvin: Student of the Church Fathers (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1999).

22. See the material gathered in Menna Prestwich, ed., International Calvinism, 1541-1715 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986).

23. Gottfried W. Locher, "Von Bern nach Genf: Die Ursachen der Spannung zwischen zwinglischer und calvinistischer Reformation," in Wegen en gestalten in hetgereformeerd protestantisme: Een bundelstudies over degeschiedenis van hetgere-formeerd protestantisme, edited by W. Balke, C. Graafland, and H. Harkema (Amsterdam: Ton Bolland, 1976), 75-87.

24. The best study of Geneva's role in this development remains Robert M. Kingdon,

Geneva and the Coming of the Wars of Religion in France, 1555-1563 (Geneva: Droz, 1956).

25. The best study is Volker Press, Calvinismus und Territorialstaat: Regierung und Zentralbehörden der Kurpfalz, 1559-1619 (Stuttgart: Klett, 1970).

26. For comment, see Lyle D. Bierma, The Doctrine of the Sacraments in the Heidelberg Catechism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Theological Seminary, 1999).

27. See Ernst Bizer, Studien zur Geschichte des Abendmahlstreits im 16. Jahrhundert (Gütersloh: Mohn, 1940); Josef Bohatec, "'Lutherisch' und 'Reformiert,'" Reformiertes Kirchenblatt für Österreich (January 28, 1951): 1-3.

28. The classic study remains Hans Leube, Kalvinismus und Luthertum im Zeitalter der Orthodoxie I: Der Kampf um die Herrschaft im protestantischen Deutschland (Leipzig: Deichert, 1928). For more recent perspectives, see Bodo Nischan, Lutherans and Calvinists in the Age of Confessionalism (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1999).

29. Knox has, of course, Mary, Queen of Scots, in mind: see Sydney H. Wood, Mary Queen of Scots and the Scottish Reformation, 1540-1587 (London: Collins, 1999).

30. For a thorough analysis, see Ian B. Cowan, The Scottish Reformation: Church and Society in Sixteenth-Century Scotland (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1982).

31. See Jonathan I. Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall, 1477-1806 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995); R. Po-chia Hsia and Henk F. K. van Nierop, eds., Calvinism and Religious Toleration in the Dutch Golden Age (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

32. See Alois Schröer, Die Reformation in Westfalen: Der Glaubenskampf einer Landschaft (Münster: Aschendorff, 1979); Michael G. Müller, Zweite Reformation und städtische Autonomie im königlichen Preussen: Danzig, Elbing, und Thorn in der Epoche der Konfessionalisierung (1557-1660) (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1997).

33. See John M. Headley, Hans Joachim Hillerbrand, and Anthony J. Papalas, eds., Confessionalization in Europe, 1555-1700: Essays in Honor and Memory of Bodo Nischan (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004).

34. H. J. Cohn, "The Territorial Princes in Germany's Second Reformation, 1559— 1622," in International Calvinism, 1541-1715, edited by M. Prestwich (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 135—65, 135.

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