The New Frontiers Of Protestantism The Global South

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1. The best study is Philip Jenkins, The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).

2. Dana L. Robert, "The First Globalization: The Internationalization of the Protestant Missionary Movement Between the World Wars," International Bulletin of Missionary Research 26 (2002): 50-66.

3. For a case study, see Francis X. Hezel, "Indigenization as a Missionary Goal in the Caroline-Marshall Islands," in Mission, Church, and Sect in Oceania, edited by James A. Boutilier, Daniel T. Hughes, and Sharon W. Tiffany (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984), 251-73.

4. The best study is Eric J. Sharpe, Not to Destroy but to Fulfill: The Contribution of J. N. Farquhar to Protestant Missionary Thought in India Before 1914 (Lund: Gle-erup, 1965).

5. For an excellent study of this approach, see Sung-Deuk Oak, "Shamanistic Tan'gun and Christian Hananim: Protestant Missionaries' Interpretation of the Korean Founding Myth, 1805-1934," Studies in World Christianity 7 (2001): 42-57.

6. Ray Wheeler, "The Legacy of Shoki Coe," International Bulletin of Missionary Research 26 (2002): 77-80.

7. This eventually led to the idea of such missions being self-supporting, self-governing, and self-propagating. Later, increased attention came to be paid to the idea of "self-theologizing"—the need to undertake theological and missio-logical reflection with the specific missionary context in mind. For an excellent analysis, see Peter C. Phan, Mission and Catechesis: Alexandre de Rhodes andIncul-turation in Seventeenth-Century Vietnam (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1998), 201-202.

8. Kwame Bediako, "The Roots of African Theology," International Bulletin ofMissionary Research 13 (1989): 58-65.

9. See Brian Stanley, ed., Christian Missions and the Enlightenment (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001).

10. John H. Mbiti, Bible and Theology in African Christianity (Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press, 1986).

11. Elizabeth Isichei, A History of Christianity in Africa from Antiquity to the Present (London: SPCK, 1995), 254.

12. These are also referred to as "African independent churches" and "African instituted churches" in the literature. The same abbreviation (AIC) serves all. See Philomena Njeri Mwaura, "African Instituted Churches in East Africa," Studies in World Christianity 10 (2004): 180-84.

13. I here follow Allan Anderson's excellent analysis, Bazalwane:African Pentecostals in South Africa (Pretoria: Unisa Press, 1992). This seminal work should be consulted for further analysis, although the pace of change is now so rapid that modification of his taxonomy will be necessary in due course.

14. Africa Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006).

15. Steve S. C. Moon, "The Recent Korean Missionary Movement," International Bulletin of Missionary Research 27 (2003): 11-16.

16. For a survey of the literature, see John H. Sinclair, "Research on Protestantism in Latin America: A Bibliographic Essay," International Bulletin of Missionary Research 26 (2002): 110-17.

17. Jean-Pierre Bastian, "The Metamorphosis of Latin American Protestant Groups: A Sociohistorical Perspective," Latin American Research Review 28 (1993): 33-6I, esp. 34-5.

19. David Stoll, Is Latin America Turning Protestant? The Politics of Evangelical Growth (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990). Stoll takes an anthropological perspective; for a sociological approach, see David Martin, Tongues of Fire: The Explosion of Protestantism in Latin America (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990). Both writers see developments in Latin America as demonstrating the fecundity of Anglo-Saxon Protestantism.

20. For the application of this economic model to the rise of charismatic Catholicism in the region, see R. Andrew Chesnut, Competitive Spirits: Latin America's New Religious Economy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 64-101.

21. See the comments of Samuel J. Escobar, "A Missiological Approach to Latin American Protestantism," International Review of Mission 87 (1987): 161-73.

22. Chesnut, Competitive Spirits, 128-46.

23. Melba Padilla Maggay, "Early Protestant Missionary Efforts in the Philippines: Some Intercultural Problems," Journal of Asian Missions 5 (2003): 119-31.

24. David S. Lim, "A Critique of Modernity in Protestant Missions in the Philippines," Journal of Asian Missions 2 (2000): 149-77.

25. See Kenton J. Clymer, Protestant Missionaries in the Philippines, 1898-1918: An Inquiry into the American Colonial Mentality (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, I986).

26. This is the judgment of Peter G. Gowing, "Christianity in the Philippines: Yesterday and Today," Silliman Journal 12 (1965): 1-43.

27. Peter Schreurs, Caraga Antigua, 1521-1910: The Hispanization and Christianiza-tion of Agusan, Surigao, and East Davao, 2nd ed. (Manila: National Historical Institute, 2000).

28. Joseph Suico, "Pentecostalism in the Philippines," in Asian and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia, edited by Allan Anderson and Edmond Tang (Oxford: Regnum Books International, 2005), 345-62.

29. For the application of the concept in Asia, see Michael Green, Asian Tigers for Christ: The Dynamic Growth of the Church in South East Asia (London: SPCK,

30. For an analysis, see David S. Lim, "Mobilizing the Local Church in Evangelism and Mission,"Journal of Asian Missions 6 (2004): 43-57.

31. Lode Wostyn, "Catholic Charismatics in the Philippines," in Anderson and Tang, Asian and Pentecostal, 363-83.

32. Wong Man Kong, "The China Factor and Protestant Christianity in Hong Kong: Reflections from Historical Perspectives," Studies in World Christianity 8 (2002): 115-39; Fuk-Tsang Ying and Pan-Chiu Lai, "Diasporic Chinese Communities and Protestantism in Hong Kong During the 1950s," Studies in World Christianity 10 (2004): 136-53.

33. For traditional Protestant denominations, see Alan Hunter and Kim-Kwong Chan, Protestantism in Contemporary China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993). For more recent developments, see Deng Zhaoming, "Indigenous Chinese Pentecostal Denominations," in Anderson and Tang, Asian and

Pentecostal, 437-66; Yamamoto Sumiko, History of Protestantism in China: The Indigenization of Christianity (Tokyo: Toho Gakkai, 2000).

34. Mauly Purba, "From Conflict to Reconciliation: The Case of the Gondang Sa-bangunan in the Order of Discipline of the Toba Batak Protestant Church," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 26 (2005): 207-33; Gani Wiyono, "Pentecostals in Indonesia," in Anderson and Tang, Asian and Pentecostal, 307-28.

35. Paul Tsuchido Shew, "Pentecostals in Japan," in Anderson and Tang, Asian and Pentecostal, 487-508. For some of the cultural barriers that Protestantism faces in Japan, see Mark R. Mullins, "What About the Ancestors? Some Japanese Responses to Protestant Individualism," Studies in World Christianity 4 (1998): 41-64.

36. For reflection, see Wilbert R. Shenk, "New Wineskins for New Wine: Toward a Post-Christendom Ecclesiology," International Bulletin of Missionary Research 29 (2005): 73-79.

37. Robert J. Schreiter, Constructing Local Theologies (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1986), 11.

38. Steve Bruce, Religion in the Modern World: From Cathedrals to Cults (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 112-13.

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