Tongues Of Fire The Pentecostal Revolution In Protestantism

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1. For this example and an excellent analysis of the movement in general, see Allan Anderson, An Introduction to Pentecostalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004). There is a mass of useful information in the authoritative collection assembled by Stanley M. Burgess and Ed M. van der Maas, eds., The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003).

2. There are significant differences within Pentecostalism over which of these individuals is to be seen as the true founder of the movement. For comment, see James R. Goff, Fields White unto Harvest: Charles F. Parham and the Missionary Origins of Pentecostalism (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1988); Walter J. Hollenweger, Pentecostalism: Origins and Developments Worldwide (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1997), 18-20. The argument that Pentecostalism is derived from the Radical Reformation—as stated in John Driver, Radical Faith: An Alternative History of the Christian Church (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1999)—is historically implausible.

3. R. M. Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980).

4. Estrelda Alexander, The Women of Azusa Street (Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 2005).

5. For this phenomenon in Methodist camp and tabernacle meetings in the United States during the nineteenth century, see Ann Taves, Fits, Trances, and Visions: Experiencing Religion and Explaining Experience from Wesley to James (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999), 232-40.

6. D. William Faupel, The Everlasting Gospel: The Significance of Eschatology in the Development of Pentecostal Thought (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996), 202-9.

7. Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited, 190.

8. For a popular account of the movement's development in the United States, see Jack W. Hayford and S. David Moore, The Charismatic Century: The Enduring Impact of the Azusa Street Revival (New York: Warner Faith, 2006).

9. C. Peter Wagner, The Third Wave of the Holy Spirit: Encountering the Power of Signs and Wonders Today (Ann Arbor, MI: Servant, 1988).

10. John Wimber and Kevin Springer, Power Healing (San Francisco: HarperSan-Francisco, 1991).

11. Steve Brouwer, Paul Gifford, and Susan D. Rose, Exporting the American Gospel: Global Christian Fundamentalism (London: Routledge, 1996).

12. On the possible origins of Pentecostalism in nineteenth-century India, see the important study by Gary B. McGee, "'Latter Rain' Falling in the East: Early-Twentieth-Century Pentecostalism in India and the Debate over Speaking in Tongues," Church History 68 (1999): 648-65.

13. See the careful analysis of Allan Anderson, "Revising Pentecostal History in Global Perspective," in Asian and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia, edited by Allan Anderson and Edmond Tang (Oxford: Regnum Books International, 2005), 147-73.

14. McGee, "'Latter Rain' Falling in the East."

15. See, for example, Paul A. Pomerville, The Third Force in Missions: A Pentecostal Contribution to Contemporary Mission Theology (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1985).

16. This point is stressed by Margaret M. Poloma, The Assemblies of God at the Crossroads: Charisma and Institutional Dilemmas (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989).

17. For discussion of the biblical ideas, see Gordon D. Fee, "Towards a Pauline Theology of Glossolalia," in Pentecostalism in Context: Essays in Honor of William W.

Menzies, edited by Wonsuk Ma and Robert P. Menzies (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997), 24-37.

18. There have been relatively few scientific studies of the phenomenon. See, for example, N. G. Holm, "Sundén's Role Theory and Glossolalia," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 26 (1987): 383-89, which interprets the phenomenon as a "pseudolanguage" learned through imitation and practiced according to linguistic rules.

19. As noted by Oliver McMahan, "A Living Stream: Spiritual Direction Within the Pentecostal/Charismatic Tradition," Journal of Psychology and Theology 30 (2002): 336-45.

20. Daniel M. Epstein, Sister Aimee: The Life of Aimee Semple McPherson (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993).

21. Robert Beckford, God of the Rahtid: Redeeming Rage (London: Darton Longman & Todd, 2001).

22. Roger Stronstad, The Prophethood of All Believers: A Study in Luke's Charismatic Theology (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999).

23. Walter Hollenweger, "Pentecostalism's Global Language," Christian History 17, no. 2 (Spring 1988), 42. For a more nuanced assessment of Pentecostalism's historical roots, see his "Verheissung und Verhängnis der Pfingtsbewegung," Evangelische Theologie 53 (1993): 265-88.

24. See, for example, Timothy B. Cargal, "Beyond the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy: Pentecostals and Hermeneutics in a Postmodern Age," Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies 15 (1993): 163-87; Veli-Matti Karkkainen, "Pentecostal Hermeneutics in the Making: On the Way from Fundamentalism to Postmodernism," Journal of the European Pentecostal Theological Association 18 (1998): 76-115.

25. Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (New York: Free Press, 1992), 216.

26. James Henley Thornwell, Collected Writings, 4 vols. (Richmond, VA: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1870-73), K34.

27. Iain S. MacLean, Opting for Democracy?: Liberation Theology and the Struggle for Democracy in Brazil (New York: Peter Lang, 1999).

28. For a discussion of this doctrine, see Alister E. McGrath, Christian Theology:An Introduction, 4th ed. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), 254-55.

29. For a classic critique, see John MacArthur, Charismatic Chaos (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1992).

30. See the classic study by Hans Hofer, "Zweite Reformation" oder Vollendung der Reformation? (Leipzig: Dörffling & Franke, 1935).

31. For an excellent survey, see Hugh McLeod and Werner Ustorf, eds., The Decline of Christendom in Western Europe, 1750-2000 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

32. Wolfhart Pannenberg, An Introduction to Systematic Theology (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1991), 12-13.

33. See the discussions in Murray W. Dempster, Byron D. Klaus, and Douglas Petersen, eds., The Globalization of Pentecostalism: A Religion Made to Travel (Carlisle, UK: Regnum Books International, 1999).

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