The Changing Shape Of American Protestantism

1. The best study is Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, eds., The Fundamentalism Project, 5 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993-2004).

2. The best study remains Bradley J. Longfield, The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists, and Moderates (New York: Oxford University Press, I993).

3. George M. Marsden, Reforming Fundamentalism: Fuller Seminary and the New Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987), 4-8.

4. For the episode, see Longfield, The Presbyterian Controversy, I8I-208. On Machen, see Darryl G. Hart, Defending the Faith: J. Gresham Machen and the

Crisis of Conservative Protestantism in Modern America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994).

5. George M. Marsden, Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1991).

6. For comment, see Joel Carpenter, Revive Us Again: The Reawakenings of American Fundamentalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

7. See Marsden, Reforming Fundamentalism, 69-244.

8. On this point, see William C. Martin, A Prophet with Honor: The Billy Graham Story (New York: Quill, 1991).

9. The political ambivalence of Graham's ministry is probably best seen in his relationship to the civil rights campaigns of Martin Luther King Jr.; see the important analysis in Michael G. Long, Billy Graham and the Beloved Community: America's Evangelist and the Dream of Martin Luther King Jr. (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).

10. George M. Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism: 1870-1925 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), 85-93.

11. Tom Wolfe, "The Great Relearning," in Hooking Up (London: Jonathan Cape, 2000), 140-45.

12. John Shelby Spong, Why Christianity Must Change or Die: A Bishop Speaks to Believers in Exile (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1998).

13. For an assessment of the ephemeral appeal of this work, see Colin Slee, ed., Honest to God: Forty Years On (London: SCM Press, 2004).

14. For a sympathetic account of Cupitt's ideas, see Nigel Leaves, Odyssey on the Sea of Faith: The Life and Writings of Don Cupitt (Santa Rosa, CA: Polebridge Press, 2004).

15. The Reagan era is often singled out as being of particular importance, partly on account of the renewal and politicization of conservative Protestantism. For a perceptive analysis of developments within the leadership of this movement, see C. Kirk Hadaway and Penny Long Marler, "The Politics of Elite Disunity in the Southern Baptist Convention, 1946-1992," Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 6 (1994): 53-102.

16. Michael Shermer, How We Believe: Science, Skepticism, and the Search for God (New York: Freeman, 2000), 16-31.

17. Harvey Cox, Religion in the Secular City: Toward a Postmodern Theology (New York: Simon & Shuster, 1984).

18. Harvey Cox, Fire from Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-first Century (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995). For a useful collection of essays, some exploring Cox's changes of mind, see Arvind Shamra, ed., Religion in a Secular City: Essays in Honor of Harvey Cox (Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International, 2001).

19. H. Richard Niebuhr, The Social Sources of Denominationalism (New York: Holt, 1929).

20. For a detailed study, see John R. Sutton and Mark Chaves, "Explaining Schism in American Protestant Denominations, 1890-1990," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 43 (2004): 171-90.

21. Will Herberg, Protestant, Catholic, Jew: An Essay in American Religious Sociology (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1955).

22. The Vanishing Protestant Majority, GSS Social Change Report 49 (Chicago: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center, 2004).

23. I deliberately use the loose term "charismatic" here; the term "Pentecostal" often has denominational overtones. For comment, see Allan Anderson, An Introduction to Pentecostalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 9-15.

24. For what follows, see Dean R. Hoge, Benton Johnson, and Donald A. Luidens, Vanishing Boundaries: The Religion of Mainline Protestant Baby Boomers (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1994).

25. Donald E. Miller, Reinventing American Protestantism: Christianity in the New Millennium (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

26. See Robert Moats Miller, Harry Emerson Fosdick: Preacher, Pastor, Prophet (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985).

27. For a detailed discussion, see Randall Balmer, Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: A Journey into the Evangelical Subculture in America, 3rd ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

28. For an illustration of the importance of the device, see Kathy Mills, "Deconstructing Binary Oppositions in Literacy Discourse and Pedagogy," Australian Journal of Language and Literacy 28 (2005): 67-82.

29. As pointed out by Michael Wheeler, The Old Enemies: Catholic and Protestant in Nineteenth-Century English Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

30. John T. McGreevy, Catholicism and American Freedom: A History (New York: Norton, 2003).

31. As argued by Philip Jenkins, The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).

32. See Mark A. Noll and Carolyn Nystrom, Is the Reformation Over? An Evangelical Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2005), 185-208.

33. See the agenda set out by John Shelby Spong, Why Christianity Must Change or Die: A Bishop Speaks to Believers in Exile (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1998).

34. For example, see Robert A. Sungenis, Not by Faith Alone: The Biblical Evidence for the Catholic Doctrine of Justification (Santa Barbara, CA: Queenship, 1997). For a Protestant perspective, see R. C. Sproul, Faith Alone: The Evangelical Doctrine of Justification (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1995).

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