Protestantism The Arts And The Natural Sciences

1. Eamon Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, c. 1400-c. 1580 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992), 11.

2. Carlos M. N. Eire, War Against the Idols: The Reformation of Worship from Erasmus to Calvin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 12.

3. John Bossy, Christianity in the West, 1400-1700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, i985X ii-i3.

4. Sergiusz Michalski, The Reformation and the Visual Arts: The Protestant Image Question in Western and Eastern Europe (London: Routledge, 1993), 75-98.

5. For a refutation of this position, see Paul Corby Finney, The Invisible God: The Earliest Christians on Art (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).

6. See the issues noted in Mitchell Stephens, The Rise of the Image, the Fall of the Word (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

7. Robert Scribner, Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (London: Hambledon Press, 1987), 277-300.

8. David Freedberg, Iconoclasm and Painting in the Revolt of the Netherlands, 15661609 (New York: Garland, 1988).

9. Mariet Westermann, "After Iconography and Iconoclasm: Current Research in Netherlandish Art, 1566-1700,"Art Bulletin 84 (2002): 351-72.

10. This point is stressed by Elizabeth Alice Honig, Painting and the Market in Early Modern Antwerp (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998).

11. John Phillips, The Reformation of Images: Destruction of Art in England, 1535-1660 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973), 186. See also Julie Spraggon, Puritan Iconoclasm During the English Civil War (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2003).

12. Angela Vanhaelen, "Iconoclasm and the Creation of Images in Emmanuel de Witte's Old Church in Amsterdam," Art Bulletin 87 (2005): 249-64.

13. For this theme in Puritan spirituality and iconography, see Lynn Haims, "The Face of God: Puritan Iconography in Early American Poetry, Sermons, and Tombstone Carving," Early American Literature 14 (1979): 15-47.

14. The classic study remains Robert Daly, God's Altar: The World and the Flesh in Puritan Poetry (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978). See also Michael

Clark, "The Crucified Phrase: Sign and Desire in Puritan Semiology," Early American Literature 13 (1978): 278-93.

15. For an Anglican example, see Richard Harries, Art and the Beauty of God: A Christian Understanding (London: Mowbray, 1993).

16. Jeremy Begbie, Voicing Creation's Praise: Towards a Theology of the Arts (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1991). Note especially Begbie's engagement with the neo-Calvinist tradition.

17. Alan Sinfield, "The Cultural Politics of the Defense of Poetry," in Sir Philip Sidney and the Interpretation of Renaissance Culture: The Poet in His Time and in Ours, edited by Gary F. Waller and Michael D. Moore (Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1984), 124-43.

18. Efterpi Mitsi, "The 'Popular Philosopher': Plato, Poetry, and Food in Tudor Aesthetics," Early Modern Literary Studies 9 (2003): 1-23.

20. Jane Donahue Eberwein, "'Art, Nature's Ape': The Challenge to the Puritan Poet," in Poetics in the Poem: Critical Essays on American Self-Reflexive Poetry, edited by Dorothy Z. Baker (New York: Peter Lang, 1997), 24-45; Sara Eaton, "Anne Bradstreet's 'Personal' Protestant Poetics," Women's Writing 4 (1997): 57-71.

21. Clarence H. Miller, "Christ as the Philosopher's Stone in George Herbert's 'The Elixir,'" Notes and Queries 45 (1998): 39-41. For a related Protestant theme, see Judy Z. Kronenfeld, "Herbert's 'A Wreath' and Devotional Aesthetics: Imperfect Efforts Redeemed by Grace," English Literary History 48 (1981): 290-309.

22. Gillian R. Evans, "John Donne and the Augustinian Paradox of Sin," Review of English Studies 33 (1982): 1-22.

23. See, for example, Aliki Barnstone, Michael T. Manson, and Carol J. Singley, eds., The Calvinist Roots of the Modern Era (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1997).

24. Susan E. Schreiner, The Theater of His Glory: Nature and the Natural Order in the Thought of John Calvin (Durham, NC: Labyrinth Press, 1991).

25. Jane Milling and Peter Thomson, eds., The Cambridge History of British Theater: Origins to 1660, 3 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 141-42.

26. For a full discussion, see Jonas A. Barish, The Anti-Theatrical Prejudice (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981).

27. See the analysis in Cecelia Tichi, "Thespis and the 'Carnall Hipocrite': A Puritan Motive for Aversion to Drama," Early American Literature 4 (1969): 86-103.

28. See the analysis and contextualization in Michael O'Connell, The Idolatrous Eye: Iconoclasm and Theater in Early Modern England (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

29. See David Bevington, Tudor Drama and Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1968), 293-99.

30. The best attempt to do this is Huston Diehl, Staging Reform, Reforming the Stage: Protestantism and Popular Theater in Early Modern England (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997).

31. Alice Lyle-Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire: A Study of the Falstaff-Oldcastle Problem (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1979).

32. See especially the recent critical biography of Stephen Greenblatt, Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare (London: Jonathan Cape, 2004).

33. For what follows, see Stephen Greenblatt, Hamlet in Purgatory (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001).

34. Greenblatt, Hamlet in Purgatory, 203, 257.

35. For a provocative analysis, see Clare Asquith, Shadowplay: The Hidden Beliefs and Coded Politics of William Shakespeare (New York: Public Affairs, 2005).

36. For the development of this genre, see Andrew M. Roberts, The Novel: A Guide to the Novel from Its Origins to the Present Day (London: Bloomsbury, 1994); Michael McKeon, The Origins of the English Novel, 1600-1740 (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2002).

37. Rodger M. Payne, The Self and the Sacred: Conversion and Autobiography in Early American Protestantism (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1998).

38. John W. Ripley, "The Strange Story of Charles M. Sheldon's In His Steps" Kansas Historical Quarterly 34 (1978): 241-65.

39. For an analysis of the possible roots of this appeal, see Ferenc Morton Szasz, The Divided Mind of Protestant America, 1880-1930 (University: University of Alabama Press, 1982), 56-58.

40. For a good survey, see Jan Blodgett, Protestant Evangelical Literary Culture and Contemporary Society (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997), 33-133.

41. Nancy Struna, "Puritans and Sports: The Irretrievable Tide of Change," Journal of Sports History (1977): 1-21.

42. The best studies are Tony Ladd and James A. Mathisen, Muscular Christianity: Evangelical Protestants and the Development of American Sport (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1999); Clifford Putney, Muscular Christianity: Manhood and Sports in Protestant America, 1880-1920 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001), 11-43.

43. See the analysis in Ann Douglas, The Feminization of American Culture (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998).

44. Putney, Muscular Christianity, 79-81.

45. There is much useful material in the bibliography provided in David Goodhew, "The Rise of the Cambridge Inter-Collegiate Christian Union, 1910-1971," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 54 (2003): 62-88.

46. George B. Kirsch, The Creation of American Team Sports: Baseball and Cricket, 1838-1872 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989).

47. Interestingly, the new importance attached to "life coaching" or "spiritual coaching" in evangelical circles can thus be argued to be a reversion to an original vision, not a departure from it. For an example of the approach, see Laurie Beth Jones, Jesus, Life Coach: Learn from the Best (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2004).

48. See Sharon Mazer, "The Power Team: Muscular Christianity and the Spectacle of Conversion," Drama Review 38 (1994): 162-88.

49. For some reflections on such themes, see Timothy P. O'Hanlon, "School Sports as Social Training: The Case of Athletics and the Crisis of World War I," Journal of Sports History 9 (1982): 5-29.

50. Frank Miller Turner, "The Victorian Conflict Between Science and Religion: A Professional Dimension," Isis 69 (1978): 356-76; Colin A. Russell, "The Conflict Metaphor and Its Social Origins," Science and Christian Faith 1 (1989): 3-26.

51. See the groundbreaking essays in David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers, God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter Between Christianity and Science (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986).

52. The most important study is Peter Harrison, The Bible, Protestantism, and the Rise of Natural Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). Harrison's thesis confirms the central argument of this work: that shifting patterns of biblical interpretation were important in shaping Protestantism's attitudes and engagements.

53. Kenneth J. Howell, God's Two Books: Copernican Cosmology and Biblical Interpretation in Early Modern Science (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002).

54. Richard Burnett, "John Calvin and the Sensus Literalis," Scottish Journal of Theology 57 (2004): 1-13.

55. Peter Berger, The Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967), 111-13.

56. Stephen Shapin, "Understanding the Merton Thesis," Isis 79 (1988): 594-605.

57. For some fascinating insights, see Kenneth Knoespel, "Interpretative Strategies in Newton's Theologicae gentilis origins philosophiae," in Newton and Religion: Context, Nature, and Influence, edited by James E. Force and Richard H. Popkin (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1999), 179-202.

58. See Stephen D. Snobelen, "Newton, Heretic: The Strategies of a Nicodemite," British Journal for the History of Science 32 (1999): 381-419.

59. For an outstanding collection of studies, see John Brooke and Ian McLean, eds., Heterodoxy in Early Modern Science and Religion (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

60. As shown by Larry Stewart, "Seeing Through the Scholium: Religion and Reading Newton in the Eighteenth Century," History of Science 34 (1996): 123-65.

61. Robert E. Schofield, The Enlightened Joseph Priestley: A Study of His Life and Work from 1773 to 1804 (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004).

62. Bertrand Russell, History of Western Philosophy, 2nd ed. (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1961), 515.

63. Edward Rosen, "Calvin's Attitude Towards Copernicus," Journal of the History of Ideas 21 (1960): 431-41.

64. Stephen D. Benin, The Footprints of God: Divine Accommodation in Jewish and Christian Thought (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993).

65. For a modern account, see Stephen Jay Gould, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002).

66. For an excellent historical account, see John Hedley Brooke, Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

67. D. L. LeMahieu, The Mind of William Paley: A Philosopher and His Age (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1976).

68. See especially Karl W. Giberson and Donald A. Yerxa, Species of Origins: America's Search for a Creation Story (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002).

69. David N. Livingstone, "B. B. Warfield, the Theory of Evolution, and Early Fundamentalism," Evangelical Quarterly 58 (1986): 69-83.

70. David N. Livingstone and Mark A. Noll, "B. B. Warfield (1851-1921): A Biblical Inerrantist as Evolutionist," Isis 91 (2000): 283-304.

71. J. I. Packer, The Evangelical Anglican Identity Problem (Oxford: Latimer House, 1978), 5.

72. Ronald L. Numbers, The Creationists: The Evolution of Scientific Creationism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992).

73. For discussion from an evangelical perspective, see James Porter Moreland and John Mark Reynolds, eds., Three Views on Creation and Evolution (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1999).

74. William A. Dembski, The Design Inference: Eliminating Chance Through Small Probabilities (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

75. Robert T. Pennock, Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics: Philosophical, Theological, and Scientific Perspectives (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001).

76. See, for example, Richard Dawkins, The God Delusion (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006); Daniel C. Dennett, Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon (New York: Viking Penguin, 2006). For a critique of this general approach, see Alister E. McGrath, Dawkins' God: Genes, Memes, and the Meaning of Life (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004).

77. For Ruse's Darwinism, see Michael Ruse, Taking Darwin Seriously: A Naturalistic Approach to Philosophy (New York: Prometheus Books, 1998). The exchange of e-mails between Ruse and Dennett took place on Sunday, February 19, 2006, and was widely distributed.

78. For an assessment, see Alister E. McGrath, with Joanna Collicutt McGrath, The Dawkins Delusion? Atheist Fundamentalism and the Denial of the Divine (London: SPCK, 2007).

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