Protestantism And The Shaping Of Western Culture

1. For the intellectual issues, see Jaroslav Pelikan, Christianity and Classical Culture: The Metamorphosis of Natural Theology in the Christian Encounter with Hellenism (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993).

2. For a range of definitions, including these, see Clyde Kluckhohn, Mirror for Man: The Relation of Anthropology to Modern Life (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1985). One of the best recent accounts is to be found in Margaret Archer, Culture and Agency: The Place of Culture in Social Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

3. T. S. Eliot, Notes Towards a Definition of Culture (London: Faber & Faber, i948) 27.

4. H. Richard Niebuhr, Christ and Culture (New York: Harper, 1951).

5. Steven M. Nolt, A History of the Amish (Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 1992).

6. For important surveys, see William R. Hutchison, The Modernist Impulse in American Protestantism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976); Mark D. Chapman, Ernst Troeltsch and Liberal Theology: Religion and Cultural Synthesis in Wilhelmine, Germany (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001).

7. For an analysis, see John P. Clayton, The Concept of Correlation: Paul Tillich and the Possibility of a Mediating Theology (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1980).

8. Paul Tillich, "The Church and Contemporary Culture," World Christian Education (1956): 41-43.

9. On this doctrine, see Per Frostin, Luther's Two Kingdoms Doctrine: A Critical Study (Lund: Lund University Press, 1994).

10. Heinz Horst Schrey, ed., Reich Gottes und Welt: Die Lehre Luthers von den Zwei Reichen (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1969).

11. For a biography, see Geoffrey Wainwright, Lesslie Newbigin: A Theological Life (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

12. Lesslie Newbigin, The Household of God: Lectures on the Nature of the Church (London: SCM Press, 1953).

13. R. H. Bainton, The Medieval Church (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1962), 42.

14. Gerald Biesecker-Mast, Separation and the Sword in Anabaptist Persuasion: Radical Confessional Rhetoric from Schleitheim to Dordrecht (Telford, PA: Cascadia, 2006). This aspect of Anabaptist identity is emphasized by Harold S. Bender, The Anabaptist Vision (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1944).

15. Other examples are easily given; see Frank D. Macchia, Spirituality and Social Liberation: The Message of the Blumhardts in the Light of Wuerttemberg Pietism (London: Scarecrow Press, 1993).

16. Representative works include John Howard Yoder, The Priestly Kingdom (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988); Stanley Hauerwas, The Peaceable Kingdom: A Primer in Christian Ethics (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983).

17. See, for example, J. Denny Weaver, The Nonviolent Atonement (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001).

18. Carl F. H. Henry, The Uneasy Conscience of Modern Fundamentalism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1947).

19. Millard J. Erickson, The New Evangelical Theology (Westwood, NJ: Revell, 1968), 22-30.

20. William Martin, With God on Our Side: The Rise of the Religious Right in America (New York: Broadway Books, 1996).

21. Ralph C. Hancock, Calvin and the Foundations of Modern Politics (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989). Note especially his astute comment: "Calvin radically distinguishes politics and religion in order to unify them in worldly activity" (163).

22. John Calvin, The Geneva Catechism (1545), q. 107.

23. For the interpretation of this text, especially in nineteenth-century America, see Stephen R. Haynes, Noah's Curse: The Biblical Justification of American Slavery (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

24. Eric Metaxas, Amazing Grace: William Wilberforce and the Heroic Campaign to End Slavery (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2007).

25. Willard M. Swartley, Slavery, Sabbath, War, and Women: Case Issues in Biblical Interpretation (Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1983).

26. For an excellent study of the problem, see Kevin W. Giles, "The Biblical Argument for Slavery: Can the Bible Mislead? A Case Study in Hermeneutics," Evangelical Quarterly 66 (1994): 3-17.

27. For a popular account of this movement, see Bruce Barron, The Health and Wealth Gospel: What's Going on Today in a Movement That Has Shaped the Faith of Millions? (Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1987).

28. Frederick Coutts, Bread for My Neighbor: An Appreciation of the Social Action and Influence of William Booth (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1978).

29. The best study of this social activism is Diane H. Winston, Red-hot and Righteous: The Urban Religion of the Salvation Army (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).

30. For a useful study, see John P. McDowell, The Social Gospel in the South: The Woman's Home Mission Movement in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 18861939 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982).

31. Gary Scott Smith, "To Reconstruct the World: Walter Rauschenbusch and Social Change," Fides etHistoria 23 (1991): 40-63.

32. See the analysis in Donald E. Miller, Global Pentecostalism: The New Face of Christian Social Engagement (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007).

33. See the analysis in Alister E. McGrath, The Twilight of Atheism: The Rise and Fall of Unbelief in the West (New York: Doubleday, 2003).

34. For details, see Robert P. Ericksen, Theologians Under Hitler: Gerhard Kittel, Paul Althaus, and Emanuel Hirsch (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985).

35. Frank J. Sorauf, The Wall of Separation: The Constitutional Politics of Church and State (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976).

36. A full examination of the thesis lies beyond this work. The following critical studies should be consulted: Hartmann Tyrell, "Worum geht es in der 'Protestantischen Ethik'?," Saeculum 41 (1990): 130-77; Friedhelm Guttandin, Einführung in die "Protestantische Ethik" Max Webers (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1998).

37. Weber regarded Lutheranism as anemic and paid little attention to the Radical Reformation. Much attention has been paid recently to the socioeconomic thought of Anabaptism and its theological foundations; see Thomas Heilke, "Locating a Moral-Political Economy: Lessons from Sixteenth-Century Ana-baptism," Polity 30 (1997): 199-229.

38. Michael H. Lessnoff, The Spirit of Capitalism and the Protestant Ethic: An Inquiry into the Weber Thesis (Aldershot, UK: Elgar, 1994).

39. Günther Roth and Hartmut Lehmann, Weber's "Protestant Ethic": Origins, Evidence, Contexts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

40. The classic study is John T. Noonan, The Scholastic Analysis of Usury (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1957). For a more recent analysis, see Odd Langholm, Economics in the Medieval Schools: Wealth, Exchange, Value, Money, and Usury According to the Paris Theological Tradition, 1200-1350 (Leiden: Brill, 1992). For Noonan's reflections on subsequent developments, see John T. Noonan, "Development in Moral Doctrine," Theological Studies 54 (1993): 662-78.

41. See texts such as Leviticus 25:35-37, Deuteronomy 23:19-20, Psalm 15:5, and Eze-kiel 18:13. For comment, see Cyril S. Rodd, Glimpses of a Strange Land: Studies in Old Testament Ethics (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 2001), 142-57.

42. Ambrose primarily based his argument on the prohibitions of usury in the Old Testament, as at Exodus 22:25 and Leviticus 25:36.

43. See Diana Wood, Medieval Economic Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). For theological reflection, see Joan Lockwood O'Donovan, "The Theological Economics of Medieval Usury Theory," Studies in Christian Ethics 14 (2001): 48-64.

44. For English attitudes, see Norman L. Jones, God and the Moneylenders: Usury and the Law in Early Modern England (Oxford: Blackwell, 1989).

45. The best study remains André Biéler, La Pensée économique et sociale de Calvin (Geneva: Librairie de l'Université, 1959), 453-76.

47. P. E. Martin, "Calvin et le prêt à intérêt à Genève," in Mélanges d'histoire économique et sociale, en hommage au professeur Antony Babel (Geneva: Imprimerie de la Tribune de Genève, 1963), 251-63.

48. Martin H. Körner, Solidarités financières suisses au XVIe siècle: Contribution à l'histoire monétaire, bancaire, et financière des cantons suisses et des états voisins (Lausanne: Payot, 1980).

49. Alfred Bürgin, Kapitalismus und Calvinismus: Versuch einer wirtschaftsgeschichtlichen und religionssoziologischen Untersuchung der Verhältnisse in Genf im 16. und beginnenden 17. Jahrhundert (Winterthur: Keller, 1960), 108-22.

50. See, for example, Gordon Marshall, Presbyteries and Profits: Calvinism and the Development of Capitalism in Scotland, 1560-1707 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980). More generally, see Richard Grassby, The Business Community of Seventeenth-Century England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

51. Anne K. Knowles, Calvinists Incorporated: Welsh Immigrants on Ohio's Industrial Frontier (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997).

52. For a critical analysis, see Rafael Llano Sánchez, Max Webers Kulturphilosophie der Moderne: Eine Untersuchung des Berufsmenschentums (Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1997).

53. For the negative consequences of this belief, see James Gilbert, Work Without Salvation: America's Intellectuals and Industrial Alienation, 1880-1910 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977).

54. Jacques LeGoff, Time, Work, and Culture in the Middle Ages (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980).

55. George Ovitt, The Restoration of Perfection: Labor and Technology in Medieval Culture (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987), 90-106.

56. Adriano Tilgher, Homo Faber: Work Through the Ages (Chicago: Regnery, 1958).

57. See the classic study by Gustaf Wingren, Luthers Lehre vom Beruf (Munich: Kaiser Verlag, 1952). For slight correction and amplification, see Karlfried Froelich, "Luther on Vocation," Lutheran Quarterly 13 (1999): 195-207; Kenneth Hagen, "A Critique of Wingren on Luther on Vocation," Lutheran Quarterly 16 (2002): 249-73.

58. William Perkins, "A Treatise of the Vocations or Callings of Men," in The Work of William Perkins, edited by Ian Breward (Appleford, UK: Sutton Courtenay Press, 1970), 250-69.

59. Vittorio Tranquilli, Ilconcetto di lavoro da Aristotele a Calvino (Milan: Ricciardi, 1979).

60. For useful reflections, see Gilbert C. Meilaender, Working: Its Meaning and Its Limits (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2000).

61. Miroslav Volf, Work in the Spirit: Toward a Theology of Work (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

62. See Robert Wuthnow and John Hyde Evans, eds., The Quiet Hand of God: Faith-Based Activism and the Public Role of Mainline Protestantism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002). Although this study focuses on the last three decades of the twentieth century, its findings are of wider relevance.

63. See the important analysis by Gerald Strauss, Luther's House of Learning: Indoctrination of the Young in the German Reformation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978).

64. Note the points made by Steven E. Ozment, Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution (New York: Doubleday, 1992).

65. Philip J. Greven, The Protestant Temperament: Patterns of Child-Rearing, Religious Experience, and the Self in Early America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988).

66. A point stressed by Mary Wilson Carpenter, Imperial Bibles, Domestic Bodies: Women, Sexuality, and Religion in the Victorian Market (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2003).

67. Thomas W. Laqueur, Religion and Respectability: Sunday Schools and Working-Class Structure, 1780-1850 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1976).

68. Gillian Lewis, "The Geneva Academy," in Calvinism in Europe, 1540-1620, edited by Andrew Pettegree, Alastair Duke, and Gillian Lewis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 35-63.

69. John S. Whitehead, The Separation of College and State: Columbia, Dartmouth, Harvard, and Yale, 1776-1876 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973).

70. For a series of case studies illustrating these developments, see George M. Mars-den and Bradley J. Longfield, eds., The Secularization of the Academy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).

71. For analysis of this development and how it might be countered, see Richard T. Hughes and William B. Adrian, eds., Models for Christian Higher Education: Strategies for Success in the Twenty-first Century (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1997).

72. See the analysis in James Tunstead Burtchaell, The Dying of the Light: The Disengagement of Colleges and Universities from Their Christian Churches (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998). Virtually all of the seventeen institutions analyzed by Burtchaell were Protestant.

73. For a study of such developments outside the CCCU, see Robert Benne, Quality with Soul: How Six Premier Colleges and Universities Kept Faith with Their Religious Traditions (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001).

74. George Marsden, Reforming Fundamentalism: Fuller Seminary and the New Evangelicalism (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1987).

75. See Katharina M. Wilson, Women Writers of the Renaissance and Reformation (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1987); Christine Peters, Patterns of Piety: Women, Gender, and Religion in Late Medieval and Reformation England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). An early attempt by a male writer deserves honorable mention: Roland H. Bainton, Women of the Reformation in Germany and Italy (Boston: Beacon Press, 1974).

76. As noted by Jane Dempsey Douglass, Women, Freedom, and Calvin (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1985).

77. This little gem is found in Charles Duplessis d'Argentré, Collectio judiciorum de novis erroribus, 3 vols. (Paris: André Cailleau, 1725-36), 2/1:96-97.

78. The importance of this role is evident from a reading of K. J. P. Lowe, Nuns' Chronicles and Convent Culture: Women and History Writing in Renaissance and Counter-Reformation Italy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

79. Merry E. Wiesner, Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe: New Approaches to European History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

80. See the important study by Nancy J. Duff, "Vocation, Motherhood, and Marriage," in Women, Gender, and Christian Community, edited by Jane Dempsey Douglass and James F. Kay (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1997), 69-81.

81. There is a large literature; see especially Lyndal Roper, The Holy Household: Women and Morals in Reformation Augsburg (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991); Joel F. Harrington, Reordering Marriage and Society in Reformation Germany (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

82. Scott Hendrix, "Christianizing Domestic Relations: Women and Marriage in Johann Freder's 'Dialogus dem Ehestand zu Ehren,'" Sixteenth Century Journal 23 (1992): 251-66.

83. For a useful analysis, see Robert J. Bast, Honor Your Fathers: Catechisms and the Emergence of a Patriarchal Ideology in Germany, c. 1400-1600 (Leiden: Brill, 1997).

84. For a brilliant yet controversial statement of this thesis, see Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Free Press, 2002).

85. Jack Donnelly, "Twentieth-Century Realism," in Traditions of International Ethics, edited by Terry Nardin and David R. Mapel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 85-111.

86. For similar ideas in Catholicism, see Robert J. Schreiter, Constructing Local Theologies (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1985).

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