1. "Nothing is possible without people; nothing lasts without institutions." For illustration and analysis of this point with reference to the creation of modern Europe, see François Roth, L'Invention de la Europe: De l 'Europe de Jean Monnet à l'Union européenne (Paris: Armand Colin, 2005).
2. For an excellent study of one aspect of this development, see Nicholas Thompson, Eucharistic Sacrifice and Patristic Tradition in the Theology of Martin Bucer, 15341546 (Leiden: Brill, 2005).
3. For the difficulties this caused many Catholics, such as Reginald Pole, see Dermot Fenlon, Heresy and Obedience in Tridentine Italy: Cardinal Pole and the Counter-Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972).
4. In recent times, this church has preferred to be known as the Episcopal Church in the United States of America (ECUSA), or, more simply, The Episcopal Church (TEC).
5. Jaroslav J. Pelikan, Spirit Versus Structure: Luther and the Institutions of the Church (London: Collins, 1968).
6. For comment, see Steven D. Paulson, "Lutherans on Episcopacy and Apostolic-ity," Lutheran Quarterly 18 (2004): 232-48.
7. For the background, see Karin Maag, "Called to Be a Pastor: Issues of Vocation in the Early Modern Period," Sixteenth Century Journal 35 (2004): 65-78.
8. R. E. H. Uprichard, "The Eldership in Martin Bucer and John Calvin," Irish Biblical Studies 18 (1996): 136-55.
9. Robert M. Kingdon, "Calvin's Idea About the Diaconate: Social or Theological in Origin?," in Piety, Politics, and Ethics: Reformation Studies in Honor of George Wolfgang Forell, edited by Carter Lindberg (Kirksville, MO: Sixteenth Century
10. See the classic study of R. W. Dale and Sir A. W. W. Dale, eds., History of English Congregationalism, 2nd ed. (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1907).
11. For example, Baptists in the northern states split from what became the Southern Baptist Convention in 1845 over the slavery issue. In 1907 they grouped together as the Northern Baptist Convention. Since 1972 the group has been known as the American Baptist Churches USA.
12. William Wright Barnes, The Southern Baptist Convention, 1845-1953 (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1954).
13. Irenaeus of Lyons, Adversus haereses, III.xxiv.i.
14. The official histories of this assembly are rather dull and triumphalistic. For a much more interesting and racy account, see God 's Apprentice: The Autobiography of Stephen Neill, edited by E. M. Jackson (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1991),
15. Some mergers did take place at the regional level; for example, the Uniting Church in Australia was formed in i977 from the Congregational Union of
Australia, the Methodist Church of Australasia, and the Presbyterian Church of Australia.
16. For an excellent analysis, see Mark A. Noll and Carolyn Nystrom, Is the Reformation Over? An Evangelical Assessment of Contemporary Roman Catholicism (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2005).
17. It is often forgotten that Luther was prepared to allow the liturgy to be in Latin provided that the sermon was preached in the vernacular.
18. A very readable account of the controversy may be found in W. Stanford Reid, Trumpeter of God: A Biography of John Knox (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1982), 105-29.
19. Philippe Denis, "La Prophétie dans les églises de la réforme au XVIe siècle," Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique 72 (1977): 289-316; Peter Iver Kaufman, "Prophesying Again," Church History 68 (1999): 337-58.
20. Carolyn Muessig, Medieval Monastic Preaching (Leiden: Brill, 1998).
21. Susan Wabuda, Preaching During the English Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 7-8.
22. Corrie E. Norman, Humanist Taste and Franciscan Values: Cornelio Musso and Catholic Preaching in Sixteenth-Century Italy (New York: P. Lang, 1998).
23. Hans Stickelberger, "Bullingers bekanntester Satz und seine Interpretation bei Karl Barth," in Von Cyprian zur Walzenprägung: Streiflichter auf Zürcher Geist und Kultur der Bullingerzeit, edited by Hans Ulrich Bächtold (Zug: Achius, 2001), 105-14.
24. Andrew Spicer, "Architecture," in The Reformation World by Andrew Pettegree (London: Routledge, 2000), 505-20, esp. 509.
25. The best study remains Paul S. Seaver, The Puritan Lectureships: The Politics of Religious Dissent, 1560-1662 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1970).
26. Robert of Basevorn, "The Form of Preaching," in Three Medieval Rhetorical Arts, edited by James J. Murphy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 197^ 111-215.
27. For Perkins's understanding of the role of preaching in the effecting of salvation, see Richard A. Muller, "Perkins's A Golden Chaine: Predestinarian System or Schematized Ordo Salutis?" Sixteenth Century Journal 9 (1978): 69-81.
28. Robert H. Ellison, The Victorian Pulpit: Spoken and Written Sermons in Nineteenth-Century Britain (Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press, 1998).
29. Helga Robinson-Hammerstein, The Transmission of Ideas in the Lutheran Reformation (Blackrock, Ireland: Irish Academic Press, 1989), 141-72.
30. The general importance of the use of music in relation to sustaining contemporary worldviews is brought out clearly by Richard Freedman, "Listening and Ideology in Reformation and Counter-Reformation: The Lassus Chansons and Their Protestant Listeners of the Late Sixteenth Century," Musical Quarterly 82 (1998): 564-85.
31. In German, "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott." The motif is incorporated into some of the cantatas ofJohann Sebastian Bach.
32. For the remarkable influence of the Psalms on English literature at this time, see Hannibal Hamlin, Psalm Culture and Early Modern English Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
33. For useful material, see John Morehen, ed., English Choral Practice, c. 1400-c. 1650 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
34. Suzanne Lord and David Brinkman, Music from the Age of Shakespeare: A Cultural History (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003), 73-92. Mention should also be made of the Anglican "anthem," which was introduced around this time. This choral piece was generally based on a scriptural text or paraphrase and sung after the collects in the liturgy of matins and evensong. Thomas Tallis (c. 150585) composed about twenty anthems.
35. John Endres and Elizabeth Liebert, A Retreat with the Psalms: Resources for Personal and Communal Prayer (New York: Paulist Press, 2001). A similar development took place within Roman Catholicism during the 1950s—four centuries later—when the French Jesuit Joseph Gelineau developed a method of paraphrasing the Psalms that preserved the rhythmic structure of Hebrew poetry. In this style—often called "sprung rhythm"—the rhythm of the singing moves on the stressed syllables of the text.
36. Although widely referred to as the Geneva Psalter, the original title of the work was La Forme desprieres et chantz ecclésiastiques.
37. The work is often referred to as "Sternhold and Hopkins," owing to the preponderance of their translations.
38. Erik Routley, The Music of Christian Hymnody: A Study of the Development of the Hymn Tune Since the Reformation, with Special Reference to English Protestantism (London: Independent Press, 1957).
39. Paul S. Minear, "Bach and Today's Theologians," Theology Today 42 (1985): 201-10.
40. For an excellent reflective account, see Richard J. Mouw and Mark A. Noll, Wonderful Words of Life: Hymns in American Protestant History and Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004). See also Edith W. Blumhofer and Mark A. Noll, Singing the Lord's Song in a Strange Land: Hymnody in the History of North American Protestantism (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004).
41. Jon Michael Spencer, Black Hymnody: A Hymnological History of the African-American Church (Knoxville: University ofTennessee Press, 1992).
42. Tamar Frankiel, Gospel Hymns and Social Religion: The Rhetoric of Nineteenth-Century Revivalism (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1978).
43. Jeremy Begbie, "The Spirituality of Renewal Music,"Anvil 8 (1991): 227-39.
44. The general issue is considered in Jeremy Begbie, Theology, Music, and Time (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 128-54.
45. For some important studies, see Sergiusz Michalski, The Reformation and the Visual Arts: The Protestant Image Question in Western and Eastern Europe (London: Routledge, 1993); Joseph Leo Koerner, The Reformation of the Image (London: Reaktion Books, 2004).
46. Lee Palmer Wandel, Voracious Idols and Violent Hands: Iconoclasm in Reformation Zurich, Strasbourg, and Basel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
47. For some of the broader issues, see Christopher Collins, Reading the Written Image: Verbal Play, Interpretation, and the Roots of Iconophobia (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991).
48. For a modern Reformed approach reflecting this position, see Jacques Ellul, The Humiliation of the Word (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1985).
49. Robert W. Scribner, For the Sake of Simple Folk: Popular Propaganda for the German Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 216-17.
50. William A. Dyrness, Reformed Theology and Visual Culture: The Protestant Imagination from Calvin to Edwards (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 142-239.
51. D. Z. Phillips, R. S. Thomas: Poet of the Hidden God—Meaning and Mediation in the Poetry of R. S. Thomas (Allison Park, PA: Pickwick Publications, 1986).
52. See the useful introduction to the Baroque style by Timon H. Fokker, Roman Baroque Art: The History of a Style (New York: Hacker, 1972). For some more specific comments, see Charles Dempsey, Annibale Carracci and the Beginnings of Baroque Style, 2nd ed. (Fiesole: Cadmo, 2000).
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