1. For a comprehensive introduction to the basic themes of Christian theology, including a comparison of Protestant, Catholic, and Orthodox positions, see Alister E. McGrath, Christian Theology: An Introduction, 4th ed. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007).
2. For some representative works, see Heinz Zahrnt, The Question of God: Protestant Theology in the Twentieth Century (New York: Harcourt Brace & World, 1969); William A. Scott, Historical Protestantism: An Historical Introduction to Protestant Theology (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970); John B. Cobb, Living Options in Protestant Theology: A Survey of Methods (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986).
3. On this argument, see Dennis R. Creswell, St. Augustine's Dilemma: Grace and Eternal Law in the Major Works of Augustine of Hippo—Studies in Church History, vol. 5 (New York: Peter Lang, 1997); Basil Studer, The Grace of Christ and the Grace of God in Augustine of Hippo: Christocentrism or Theocentrism? (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1997).
4. For the development of this doctrine, with particular reference to the controversies of the sixteenth century, see Alister E. McGrath, Iustitia Dei: A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification, 3rd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
5. See the classic study by Ernst Wolf, "Die Rechtfertigungslehre als Mitte und Grenze reformatorischer Theologie," Evangelische Theologie 9 (1949): 298-308.
6. Friedhelm Krüger, Bucer und Erasmus: Eine Untersuchung zum Einfluss des Erasmus auf die Theologie Martin Bucers (bis zum Evangelien-Kommentar von 1530) (Wiesbaden: Steiner, 1970).
7. Alvin J. Beachy, The Concept of Grace in the Radical Reformation (Nieuwkoop: de Graaf, 1977).
8. Arnold Angenendt, Heilige und Reliquien: Die Geschichte ihres Kultes vom frühen Christentum bis zur Gegenwart (Munich: Beck, 1994). For a specific example of the phenomenon, see Thomas Head, Hagiography and the Cult of Saints: The Diocese of Orleans, 800-1200 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
9. See the important material assembled in Robert W. Scriber, Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (London: Hambledon, 1987), 301—54.
10. For documentation and comment, see McGrath, Iustitia Dei, 406-20.
11. For the debate, which continues to this day, see Stephen Westerholm, Perspectives Old and New on Paul: The "Lutheran" Paul and His Critics (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004).
12. McGrath, Iustitia Dei, 406-20.
13. See the material in William J. Connell, ed., Society and Individual in Renaissance Florence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002).
14. Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, IV.i.9.
15. Laurence R. Iannaccone and Rodney Stark, "A Supply-Side Reinterpretation of the 'Secularization' of Europe,"Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 33 (1994): 230-52.
16. Steve Bruce, "The Truth About Religion in Britain," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 34 (1995): 417-30. Bruce is critical of the approach adopted by Iannaccone and Stark.
17. W. H. C. Frend, The Donatist Church: A Movement of Protest in Roman North Africa (London: Oxford University Press, 1952).
18. On this idea, see Maureen A. Tilley, "Sustaining Donatist Self-Identity: From the Church of the Martyrs to the Collecta of the Desert,"Journal of Early Christian Studies 5 (1997): 21-35.
19. Paul Chang-La Lim, In Pursuit of Purity, Unity, and Liberty: Richard Baxter's Puritan Ecclesiology in Its Seventeenth-Century Context (Leiden: Brill, 2004), 156-90.
20. For what follows, see Louis Bouyer, The Word, Church, and Sacraments in Protestantism and Catholicism (London: Chapman, 1961); Gary Macy, The Theologies of the Eucharist in the Early Scholastic Period (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984); Brian A. Gerrish, Grace and Gratitude: The Eucharistic Theology of John Calvin (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1993); James F. White, The Sacraments in Protestant Practice and Faith (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1999).
21. Hermann Sasse, This Is My Body: Luther's Contention for the Real Presence in the Sacrament of the Altar (Minneapolis: Augsburg Press, 1959).
22. Charles Taylor, Modern SocialImaginaries (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004).
23. Robert Whalen, "George Herbert's Sacramental Puritanism," Renaissance Quarterly 54 (2001): 1273-1307.
24. For some of these issues, see Marcel Gauchet, The Disenchantment of the World: A Political History of Religion (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997).
25. For the debates, see Dewey D. Wallace, Puritans and Predestination: Grace in English Protestant Theology, 1525-1695 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982); Richard A. Muller, Christ and the Decree: Christology and Predestination in Reformed Theology from Calvin to Perkins (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1988).
26. For the point, see Alister E. McGrath, The Genesis of Doctrine (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990).
27. The best account is Robert Kolb, Bound Choice, Election, and Wittenberg Theological Method: From Martin Luther to the Formula of Concord (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005).
28. See Adolar Zumkeller, "Hugolin von Orvieto über Prädestination, Rechtfertigung, und Verdienst,"Augustiniana 4 (1954): 109-56; 5 (1955): 5-51.
29. Lutheran Church (Missouri Synod), "Brief Statement," articles 33-35 (on the election of grace). I have taken the liberty of restating this excerpt using inclusive language.
30. The best study of the origins and emergence of these ideas remains A. W. Harrison, The Beginnings of Arminianism to the Synod of Dort (London: University of London Press, 1926).
31. Herbert B. McGonigle, Sufficient Saving Grace: John Wesley's Evangelical Arminianism (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster Press, 2001).
32. C. H. Spurgeon's Autobiography: Compiled from His Diary, Letters, and Records, edited by Susannah Spurgeon and W. J. Harrald, 4 vols. (London: Passmore and Alabaster, 1900), 1:173. Spurgeon's later comments may be noted: "Although upon doctrines of grace our views differ from those avowed by Arminian Methodists, we have usually found that on the great evangelical truths we are in full agreement, and we have been comforted by the belief that Wesleyans were solid upon the central doctrines" (The Sword and the Trowel, May 1891).
33. For a discussion, see Alister E. McGrath, A Brief History of Heaven (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).
34. E. Beatrice Batson, John Bunyan: Allegory and Imagination (Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1984).
35. Barton Levi St. Armaud, "Paradise Deferred: The Image of Heaven in the Work of Emily Dickinson and Elizabeth Stuart Phelps," American Quarterly 29 (1977):
36. James Martin, The Last Judgment in Protestant Theology (Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1963).
37. See Tony Gray, "Destroyed For Ever: An Examination of the Debates Concerning Annihilation and Conditional Immortality," Themelios 21 (1996): 14-18.
38. See the discussion in Jeffrey Burton Russell, Paradise Mislaid: How We Lost Heaven—And How We Can Regain It (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).
39. Richard Landes, "On Owls, Roosters, and Apocalyptic Time: A Historical Method for Reading a Refractory Documentation," Union Seminary Quarterly Review 49 (1996): 165-85.
40. For the history of the interpretation of this biblical work, see Kenneth G. C. Newport, Apocalypse and Millennium: Studies in Biblical Eisegesis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
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