Better Never Been Born

The son of man goeth as it is written of him but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed It had been good for that man if he had not been born. Matt. 26 24. Mark 14 21. Luke It is said that this language cannot be true of Judas, if he is ever to be redeemed, no matter how much he may have suffered previously. The answer to this is, that this was a proverbial expression among the Jews, and was not employed literally. Job says Let the day perish wherein I was born. Job iii 3. Solomon...

Orthodox And Heathen Views Identical

Now do popular Christian descriptions resemble anything in the Old Testament Do they not exactly copy the heathen description Whence came these ideas They are not found in the Old Testament. And yet the world was full of them when Christ came. Jeremy Taylor, of the English Church, says The bodies of the damned shall be crowded together in hell, like grapes in a wine-press, which press one another till they burst every distinct sense and organ shall be assailed with its own appropriate and most...

The Living God Fearful

It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God. Heb.10 31 To fall into the hands of God, the living God, is as when (1 Sam. 5 6) the hand of the Lord was heavy, and the hand of the Lord was against the Philistines. It denotes the judgments of God falling on the sinful. It is fearful to merit and receive those penalties. God has a merciful purpose in them, but they are often fearful to experience. We are always in God's hands, but we are said to fall into his hands when we suffer...

Hadees Destroyed

1 Cor. 15 55 O death, where is thy sing O grave, where is thy victory This is parallel to Hos. 14 14, where the destruction of Hadees is prophesied. Whatever Hadees means, it is not to endure forever. It is destined to be destroyed. It cannot be endless torment. That its inhabitants are to be delivered from its dominion, is seen from Rev. 20 13, And Death and Hell delivered up the dead that were in them. This harmonizes with the declaration of David, that he had been delivered from it already....

Jewish And Pagan Opinions

At the time of Christ's advent Jew and Pagan held Hadees to be a place of torment after death, to endure forever. The prevalent and distinguishing opinion was, that the soul survived the body, that vicious souls would suffer everlasting imprisonment in Hadees, and that the souls of the virtuous would both be happy there, and, in process of time, obtain the privilege of transmigrating into other bodies. (Campbell's Four Gospels, Diss. 6, Pt. 2 19.) Of the Pharisees, Josephus says They also...

Lexicography And The Critics

Now lexicograph must always be consulted, especially on disputed words, cum grano salis. A theologian, in his definitions, is quite certain to shade technical words with his own belief, and lean one way or the other, according to his own predilections. Unconsciously and necessarily the lexicographer who has a bias in favor of any doctrine will tincture his definitions with his own idiosyncracies. Very few have sat judicially, and given meanings to words with...

Everlasting Shame And Contempt

Dan. 12 2, And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. When was this to take place At that time. What time Verse 31, chap. 11, speaks of the coming of the abomination that maketh desolate. Jesus says, Matt. 24 15,16, Luke 21 20,21, When ye therefore (the disciples) shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet stand in the holy place, then let them which be in Judea flee to the...

Testimony Of Scholars

The best critics concede that the doctrine of endless punishment is not taught in the Old Testament. But the word in dispute is found in connection with punishment in the Old Testament. This is a concession that the word has no such meaning in the Old Testament. Milman The lawgiver (Moses) maintains a profound silence on that fundamental article, if not of political, at least of religious legislation rewards and punishments in another life. Paley, Jahn, Whately are to the same purport, and H....

Universal Pardon And Obedience

I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts and I will be their God and they shall be my people. And they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, know the Lord for they shall all know me. -whom to know is life eternal- from the least to the greatest of them, says the Lord, for I will forgive their iniquities, and I will remember their sins no more. Jer. 31 33, 34. For all the house of Israel shall know me, from the least to the...

An Objection Answered

Objectors sometimes say, Then eternal life is not endless, for the same Greek adjective qualifies life and punishment. This does not follow, for the word is used in Greek in different senses in the same sentence as in Hab. 3 6. And theeverlasting mountains were scattered, his ways are everlasting. Suppose we apply the popular argument here. The mountains and God must be of equal duration, for the same word is applied to both. Both are temporal or both are endless. But the mountains are...

The Noun

It is applied to the kingdom of Christ. Luke 1 33, And he shall reign over the house of Jacob forever and of his kingdom there shall be no end. See also 1 55 Heb. 6 20 7 17-21 1 Pet. 4 11 2 Pet. 1 11, 3 18 Rev. 1 6 11 15. But the kingdom of Christ is to end, and he is to surrender all dominion to the Father, therefore endless duration is not taught in these passages. See 1 Cor. 15. 2. It is applied to the Jewish age more than thirty times 1 Cor. 10 11, Now all these things happened unto them...

Endless Punishment Of Heathen Origin

We should also bear another fact in mind. When the doctrine of endless punishment began to be taught in the Christian Church, it was not derived from the Scriptures, but from the heathen converts to Christianity, who accepted Christ, but who brought with them into their new church that doctrine which had for centuries been taught in heathen lands, but which neither Moses nor Christ accepted. And having received the idea from heathen tradition, it was natural that the early Christians should...

Testimony Of Critics

Warburton In the Jewish Republic, both the rewards and punishments promised by heaven were temporal only such as health, long life, peace, plenty, and dominion, etc. diseases, premature death, war, famine, want, subjections, and captivity, etc. And in no one place of the Mosaic Institutes is there the least mention, or intelligible hint, of the rewards and punishments of another life. Div Leg. vol.iii.Jahn We have not authority, therefore, decidedly to say that any other motives were held out...

Agree With Thine Adversary

Agree with thine adversary quickly, while thou art in the way with him lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. Verily, I say unto you, thou shalt by no means come out thence till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. Matt. 5 25,26. The adversary here is a legal one, the language refers to those who were opposed to the disciples in some way, as is evident from the references to a judge, an officer and a...

Eating And Drinking Damnation

For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. 1 Cor. 11 29. The word translated damnation is very improperly rendered. Krima denotes punishment, resulting in improvement, according to verse 32 But when we are judged, we are chastened by the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world. The best rendering of krima is judgment, by which word it is usually represented in English. Matt. 7 2, For with what judgment ye...

Knowledge Of God Gives Peace

Job says Acquaint yourself with God and be at peace. Job. 22 21. If he were the being the creeds describe, the better we knew him the more we would be tormented. Ignorance of his character would be the soul's bliss. But the better he is known the more peace the soul enjoys. Hence he must be incapable of torturing the soul forever, or punishing it more than its good demands. It is ignorance of God that makes the soul unhappy, while knowledge of him renders the soul peaceful. Hence it follows...

The Testimony Of The Prophets

The prophets often built better than they knew, and uttered truths which later generations comprehended better than they did themselves. Especially is this true of some of their utterances concerning man's final destiny. Even in the times of our Savior, the prophets were not understood even by those who professed to follow them. For instance, the Sadducees did not accept the doctrine of the resurrection, while they professed to follow Moses, and yet Jesus told them that God taught the...

Impossible To Renew Them

For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, if they shall fall away, to renew them again to repentance seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame. Heb 6 4-6. Any reader of the New Testament ought to see that this language is not to be understood as literal, when he remembers that Peter...

The Book Of Enoch

Peter alludes to the subject just as though it were well-known and understood by his correspondents. If the angels that sinned.-what angels were cast down to Tartarus, where is the story related Not in the Bible, but in a book well-known at the time, called the Book of Enoch. It was written some time before the Christian Era, and is often quoted by the Christian fathers. It embodies a tradition, to which Josephus alludes, (Ant. 1 3) of certain angels who had fallen. (Dr. T. J. Sawyer, in Univ....

The Teaching Of The Parable

But what does the parable teach That the Jewish nation, and especially the Scribes and Pharisees were about to die as a power, as a church, as a controlling influence in the world while the common people among them and the Gentiles outside of them were to be exalted in the new order of things. The details of the parable show this There was a certain rich man clothed in purple and fine linen. In these first words, by describing their very costume, the Savior fixed the attention of his hearers on...

Gods Glory

God's glory can only be promoted by the salvation of all his children. Good music glorifies the musician, good machinery the machinist, a good farm the farmer, good children a father. Success glorifies, and defeat shames. God designs a holy race. He can only be glorified by universal holiness. Hence he says Who so offers praise glorifies me. Ps. l 23. And the honor and the power and the glory can only belong to him when his efforts to redeem all shall issue in the redemption of all.

The English Word Hell

The English word Hell grew into its present meaning. Horne Tooke says that hell, heel, hill, hole, whole, hall, hull, halt and hold are all from the same root. Hell, any place, or some place covered over. Heel, that part of the foot which is covered by the leg. Hill, any heap of earth, or stone, etc., by which the plain or level surface of the earth is covered. Hale, i.e., healed or whole. Whole, the same as hale, i.e., covered. It was formerly written whole, without the w, as a wound or sore...

Five Old Testament Texts Claimed

Professor Stuart (orthodox Congregational) only dares claim five out of the sixty-four passages as affording any proof that the word means a place of punishment after death. These, he says, may designate the future world of woe. They spend their days in wealth, and in a moment go down to Sheol. The wicked shall be turned into Sheol, and all the nations that forget God. Her feet go down to death, her steps take hold of Sheol. But he knoweth that the ghosts are there, and that her guests are in...

Never Forgiveness Eternal Damnation

Whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come. Parallel passages Mark 3 29. But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never (aiona) forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal (aionion) damnation. Luke 12 10. And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him but unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Ghost it shall not be forgiven. Literally, neither in this...

The Child Of Hell

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of Hell than yourselves. Matt. 23 15. Looking upon the smoking valley and thinking of its corruptions and abominations to call a man a child of Gehenna was to say that his heart was corrupt and his character vile, but it no more indicated a place of woe after death than a resident of New York would imply such a place by calling a bad man a...

Applied To God

It is applied to God, Christ, the Gospel, the good, the Resurrection world, etc., in which the sense of endless is allowable because imputed to the word by the subject treated, as declared by Taylor and Fuerst, on page 17 of this book, in Rom. 1 25 9 5 11 36 16 27 Gal. 1 5 Phil. 4 20 1 Tim. 1 17 2 Tim. 4 18 1 John 2 17 1 Peter 5 11 Rev. 7 12, 15 7 Rom. 16 26 2 Cor. 4 18, 5 1 2 Tim. 2 10 Heb. 6 2, 9 12,14,15, 13 20 1 Pet. 5 10 Rev. 4 10 John 8 35, 12 34, 14 16 2 Cor. 9 9, 11 31 Gal. 1 5 Eph.3 11...

The Undying Worm

Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. Undoubtedly Jesus had reference to the language of the prophet. And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the Lord. And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have transgressed against me for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh. Isa. 66 23,...

The Spirits In Prison

An illuminating side-light is thrown on this subject by commentators on 1 Pet. 3 18-20, in which Christ is said to have preached unto the spirits in prison. Alford says our Lord did preach salvation in fact, to the disembodied spirits, etc. Tayler Lewis (70) There was a work of Christ in Hades, he makes proclamation 'ekeruxen' in Hades to those who are there in ward. This interpretation, which was almost universally adopted by the early Christian church, etc. Professor Huidekoper.(71) In the...

As The Tree Falls So It Lies

And as death leaves us, so judgment finds us, is the home-brewed method of mis-quoting the language of Solomon. There is no such text or idea in the Bible, nor anything like it. The language referred to reads thus If the tree fall toward the south, or toward the north, in the place where the tree falleth, there it shall be. Eccl. 11 3. It has no reference whatever to death, or the end of probation, though so often quoted both in and out of the pulpit. The book of Ecclesiastes is the wail of a...

The Case Of Judas

These passages relate to the sin of Judas, and its consequences. Acts 1 16-18. Men and brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost, by the mouth of David, spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus. For he was numbered with us, and hath obtained part of this ministry. Now this man purchased a field with the reward of iniquity and, falling headlong, he burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. Matt. 26 24. Woe unto...

That They All Might Be Damned

And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie that they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness. 1 Thess. 2 11-12. The word damned here should be judged. In 1 Tim.5 12 Having damnation because they have cast off their first faith, and in Rom. 3 8, of slanderers, whose damnation is just the present tense is used, showing that the damnation is already experienced.

The Strait Gate

The Strait Gate and the Few saved are thought by many to indicate the final salvation of only a portion of the human family. The question was asked by some one (Luke 13 23 and Matt. 7 13,14) Lord, are there few that be saved and he answered Strive to enter in at the strait gate for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able. When once the master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door, and ye begin to stand without and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, open...

Ye Shall All Likewise Perish

I tell you, nay except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. Luke 12 3. Many readers of the Bible suppose that the word perish always relates to the immortal soul, and that it means to suffer torment without end. And this passage has been quoted blindly, ignorantly, thousands of times to denote the final loss of the soul. But it is only necessary to consult the immediate context to perceive that Jesus was referring to nothing of the sort. He asks Suppose ye that these Galileans were sinners...

The Adjective Limited

But it is found with limited meaning in these and other passages Gen. 9 12-16 Gen. 17 8,13,19 and Num. 25 13 Ex. 12 14,17 27 21 28 43 29 28 30 21 31 16,17 Lev. 6 18,22 7 34,36 10 15 16 29,31,34 17 7 23 14,31,41 24 3,8,9. Num. 10 8 15 15 18 8,11,19,23 19 10,21 2 Sam. 23 5 1 Chron. 16 17 Isa. 24 5 Ezek. 16 60 Psa. 77 5 Isa 63 11 Jer. 6 16 18 15 Job 21 11 22 15 Isa.58 12 61 4 Ezek. 26 20 Prov. 22 28 23 10 Ezek. 36 2 35 5 Isa. 54 4 Jer. 5 22 18 16 25 9,12 Ezek. 35 9 Jer. 20 17 23 40 51 39 Micah 2...

The End Of Aionian Things

Now the Jews have lost their eternal excellency Aaron and his sons have ceased from their priesthood the Mosaic system is superseded by Christianity the Jews no longer possess Canaan David and his house have lost the throne of Israel the Jewish temple is destroyed, and Jerusalem is wiped out as the holy city the servants who were to be bondmen forever are all free from their masters Gehazi is cured of his leprosy the stones are removed from Jordan, and the smoke of Idumea no longer rises the...

Tayler Lewis

Tayler Lewis(73) in the course of learned disquisitions on the meaning of the Olamic and Aionian words of the Bible, refers to the oldest version of the New Testament, the Syriac, or the Peshito, and tells us how these words are rendered in this first form of the New Testament So is it ever in the old Syriac version where the one rendering is still more unmistakably clear. These shall go into the pain of the Olam (aion) (the world to come), and these to the life of the Olam (aion) (the...

The Emperor Justinian

D. 540), in calling the celebrated local council which assembled in 544, addressed his edict to Mennos, Patriarch of Constantinople, and elaborately argued against the doctrines he had determined should be condemned. He does not say, in defining the Catholic doctrine at that time We believe in aionion punishment, for that was just what the Universalist, Origen himself taught. Nor does he say, The wordaionion has been misunderstood, it denotes endless duration, as he...

The Harvest Past And We Not Saved

The harvest is past, the summer is ended, and we are not This is the text of many a revival sermon, the word saved being wrested from its true menaing, and forced to relate to deliverance from an endless hell. The prophet applies it to deliverance from those national calamities to which the Jewish nation were at the time subjected by Nebuchadnezzar. They were besieged, without preparation, on the verge of winter after harvest, and were not saved from their enemies. Dr. Clarke says The harvest...

The Classics Never Use Aion To Denote Eternity

It appears, then, that the classic Greek writers, for more than six centuries before the Septuagint was written, used the word aion and its adjective, but never once in the sense of endless duration. When, therefore, the Seventy translated the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek, what meaning must they have intended to give to these words It is not possible, it is absolutely insupposable that they used them with any other meaning than that which they had held in the antecedent Greek literature. As the...

The Resurrection

Nothing can be plainer or more positive than the Bible presentation of the Final Resurrection. It demonstrates the deliverance of universal humanity from sin and suffering. It describes a state in which evil has vanished from the moral universe. The resurrection is employed as a figure, sometimes, that is, as a national, or local, or moral awakening, and sin is said to follow it, but in all such instances the circumstances limit it, and show that it is not the final resurrection. Such a usage...

The Blasphemy Of The Holy Ghost

The passages that relate to this subject are in Matt. 12 31,32 Wherefore I say unto you, all manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. And whosoever speaketh against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor the world to come. Mark 3 28-30 all sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies...

Examples

Gen. 6 4, There were giants in the earth in those days and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, (aionos), men of renown. Gen. 9 12 God's covenant with Noah was for perpetual (aionious) generations. Gen. 9 16 The rainbow is the token of the everlasting (aionion) covenant between God and all flesh that is upon the earth Gen. 13 15 God gave the land to Abram and his seed forever,...

Gods Wisdom Unlimited

Ps. 147 5. Declaring the end from the beginning and from ancient time the things that are not yet done, saying, my counsel shall stand and I will do all my pleasure. Isa. 46 10. Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world. Acts 15 18. To claim that God desires the final welfare of all men, and that his wisdom has devised the best plan possible to infinite wisdom, but that man's rebellion has not been foreseen, or, if foreseen, not amply...

The Aionian Punishment Is For Evil Works

Practical benevolence is the virtue whose reward is here announced, and unkindness is the vice whose punishment is here threatened, and not faith and unbelief, on which heaven and hell are popularly predicated. Matt. 25 34-45. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world For I was a hungered, and ye game me meat I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink I was a stranger and ye took me in...

Occurrence Of The Adjective

The adjective aionios is (incorrectly) said by Professor Stuart to (53) occur sixty-six times in the New Testament, be we make it seventy-two times. Of these fifty-seven are used in relation to the happiness of the righteous three in relation to God or his glory four are of a miscellaneous nature and seven relate to the subject of punishment. Now these fifty-seven denote indefinite duration, everlasting life being a life that may or may not certainly does not always endure forever. Thus the...

All The Lost Are To Be Saved

All Christians admit that men are in a lost condition. While there is no such language as finally impenitent, or finally lost in the Bible, the Gospel everywhere assumes that souls are lost. For the purpose of seeking and saving such, all such, Jesus came to this world. The Son of Man is come to save that which was lost. Luke 19 10. Not a part, but all the lost. Will he succeed This question he answers, and in the three parables, the Lost Silver, the Lost Sheep, and the Lost Prodigal, he...

The Principal Prooftext

Of an error hoary with antiquity, and not yet wholly abandoned. Matt. 25 46, is the great proof-text of the doctrine of endless punishment These shall go away into everlasting punishment, and the righteous into life eternal. We shall endeavor to establish the following points against the erroneous view of this Scripture. 1. The punishment is not for unbelief, but for not benefitting the needy. 2. The general antecedent usage of the word denot ing duration here, in the Classics and in the Old...

Justin Martyr

D., 140, 162, taught everlasting suffering, and annihilation afterwards. The wicked are tormented as long as God wills that they should exist and be tormented Souls both suffer punishment and die.(76) He uses the expression aperanton aiona.(77) The wicked will be punished with everlasting punishment, and not for a thousand years as Plato asserted. Here punishment is announced as limited. This is evident from the fact that Justin Martyr taught the annihilation of the wicked...

Meaning Of The Word

The real meaning of the word Stuart concedes to be the under-world, the religion of the dead, the grave, the sepulcher, the region of ghosts or departed spirits. (Ex. Ess.) It was considered as a vast and wide dominion or region, of which the grave seems to have been as it were only a part or a kind of entrance-way. It appears to have been regarded as extending deep down into the earth, even to its lowest abysses In this boundless region lived and moved at times, the names of departed friends....

Thrust Down To Hadees

Matt. 11 23 and Luke 10 15 And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to Hell. And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down to Hell. Of course, a city never went to a place of torment after death. The word is used here just as it is in Isa. 14, where Babylon is said to be brought down to Sheol or Hadees, to denote debasement, overthrow, a prediction fulfilled to the letter. Dr. Clarke's interpretation is correct The word here means a...

Heathen Corruptions

It must not be forgotten that contact with the heathen had corrupted the opinions of the Jews, at the time of our Savior, from the simplicity of Moses, and that by receiving the traditions and fables of paganism, they had made void the word of God. They had accepted Hadees as the best Greek word to convey their idea of Sheol, but without investing it at first with the heathen notions of the classic Hadees, as they afterwards did. What these ideas were, the classic authors inform us. The Jews...

The Testimony Of Jesus

Jesus, when on earth, preached in such a manner that the people wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth. (Luke 4 22) This could not have happened, had he threatened the people with endless misery. He preached salvation to sinful, guilty man he preached the love of God to the whole world and declared, that God sent not His Son into the world to condemn the world, but, that the world, through Him, might be saved. Well might the people wonder at his gracious words. 62....

Conclusion

We have thus briefly explained all the passages in which Gehenna occurs. Is there any intimation that it denotes a place of punishment after death Not any. If it mean such a place no one can escape believing that it is a place of literal fire, and all the modern talk of a Hell of conscience is most erroneous. But that it has no such meaning is corroborated by the tesitmony of Paul, who says he shunned not to declare the whole counsel of God, and yet he never, in all his writings, employs the...

The Doctrine Of The Bible

The author of these pages proposes, in the briefest and simplest manner of which he is capable, to set forth the leading Scriptural arguments in favor of the doctrine of Universal Salvation. He will not attempt to exhaust the subject, nor will he endeavor to explain what are called The Difficult passages, that is, those that are popularly supposed to teach a different doctrine. Remanding that task - a perfectly easy one - to another volume, a proper companion to this, he will only attempt, in...

God Angry Every

God is angry with the wicked every day. Psalm 7 11. Anger, as the word is ordinarily used, is not a noble emotion it is altogether unworthy of God, and he is incapable of it. The wise man says (Ecc. 7 9) Anger resteth in the bosom of fools. Then God cannot be angry every day, all the time. What is the meaning of these words Dr. Adam Clarke, the well known scholar and commentator, has examined the text with equal learning and candor, and he gives us the result of his investigation in the...

God Laughs At Mans Calamity

I have called, and ye refused I have stretched out my hand and no man regarded but ye have set at naught all my counsel, and would none of my reproofs. I also will laugh at your calamity I will mock when your fear cometh. Prov. 1 24-26. This language is sometimes wrongfully applied to God, who is represented as laughing at man's calamity, and mocking him when in future and final torment, whereas it is Wisdom that is personified as saying Wisdom crieth without she uttereth her voice in the...

Hadees Is On Earth

Rev. 6 8 And I looked, and behold a pale horse and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. and power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with the sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth. All the details of this description demonstrate that this Hell is on this earth, and not in the future world. The word also occurs in Rev. 1 18 I am he that liveth, and was dead and, behold I am alive for evermore, Amen and have...

Hell In The New Testamenthadees

The word Hadees occurs but eleven times in the New Testament, and is translated Hell ten times, and grave once. The word is from a not, and eido, to see, and means concealed, invisible. It has exactly the same meaning as Sheol, literally the grave, or death, and figuratively destruction, downfall, calamity, or punishment in this world, with no intimation whatever of torment or punishment beyond the grave. Such is the meaning in every passage of the Old Testament containing the word Sheol or...

Christ Cancels Adam

Christ's labors cancel Adam's influence, Therefore as by the offense of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation, even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. Rom. 5 18 But where sin abounded,grace did much more abound. Rom. 5 20 As sin has reigned unto death even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord. Rom. 5 21 As in Adam all die even so in Christ shall all be made alive. 1 Cor. 15 32...

Dust Of The Earth

The phrase sleeping in the dust of the earth, is of course employed figuratively, to indicate sloth, spiritual lethargy, as in Ps. 44 25 Isa. 25 12 26 5 1 Tim. 5 6 Rev. 3 1, For our soul is bowed down to the dust. And the fortress of the high fort of thy walls shall he bring down, lay low, and bring to the ground, even to the dust. For he bringeth down them that dwell on high the lofty city, he layeth it low he layeth it low, even to the ground he bringeth it even to the dust. But she that...

The Last Days

The terms last days, end of the world, etc. found in connection with judgment, are made very clear to the careful reader of the Bible. The words last day, last days, etc., refer to the closing of the Mosaic dispensation, and not, as is often supposed, to the final closing up of mundane affairs. Peter demonstrates this, by applying the words of Joel to what was then transpiring, Acts 2 16- 20, But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel, And it shall come to pass in the last days,...

Thomas De Quinceys Views

It will be of interest to give here the views of Thomas De Quincey, one of the most accurate students of language, and profoundest reasoners and thinkers among English scholars. He states the facts of the case with almost perfect accuracy I used to be annoyed and irritated by the false interpretation given to the Greek word ai n, and given necessarily, therefore, to the Greek adjective ai nios as its immediate derivative. It was not so much the falsehood of this interpretation, as the...

Gods Anger Is Limited

A great number of passages of Scripture speak of what the Bible calls God's anger or wrath -meaning thereby his disapprobation and punishment of sin - as limited, brief and destined to end, frequently contrasting it with his mercy, which, it is said, will never end, and declaring that the soul of man could not exist as the victim of endless wrath. God's delight is in mercy, and he displays anger towards men for their benefit, and when the purpose of the anger is accomplished, mercy is resumed....

God All In

And when all things shall be subdued unto him,then shall the son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all. 1 Cor. 15 28. When he is all in all can the devil be in any And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, which he wrought in Christ when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principality, and power, and...

Life Eternal

It is applied to life, Everlasting and Eternal Life. But this phrase does not so much denote the duration, as the quality of the Blessed Life. It seems to have the sense of durable in these passages Matt. 19 16,29, 25 46 Mark 10 17,30 Luke 10 25, 16 9, 18 18,30 John 3 15,16,36, 4 14,36, 5 24,39, 6 27,40,47,54,68, 10 28, 12 25,50, 17 2,3 Rom. 2 7, 5 21, 6 22,23, Gal. 6 8 2 Thess.2 16 1 Tim. 1 16, 6 12 Titus 1 2,3 7 Heb. 5 9 1 John 1 2, 2 25, 3 15, 5 11,13,20 Jude 21 Mark 10 30 Luke 18 30 John 4...

Did Jesus Employ The Popular Phraseology

It is often remarked that as, according to Josephus, the Jews in our Savior's times believed in endless punishment, Jesus must have taught the same doctrine, as he employed the terms the Jews used. But this is not true, as we have shown. Christ and his apostles did not employ the phraseology that the Jews used to describe this doctrine. As we have shown Philo used athanaton and ateleuteton meaning immortal, and interminable. He says,(59)zoe apothneskonta aeikai tropon tina thanaton athanat on...

Destroy Soul And Body In Hell

And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in Hell. Matt. 10 28. But I will forewarn you whom you shall fear Fear him which, after he hath killed, hath power to cast into Hell yea, I say unto you, fear him ' Luke 12 5. The reader of these verses and the accompanying language, will observe that Jesus is exhorting his disciples to have entire faith in God. The most that men can do is to destroy the body,...

The Subject Determines The Duration Described By The Adjective

Tayler Lewis says, 'One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh but the earth abideth forever.' This certainly indicates, not an endless eternity in the strictest sense of the word, but only a future of unlimited length. Ex. 31 16 'Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the Sabbath, to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.' Olam here would seem to be taken as a hyperbolical term for indefinite or unmeasured duration. Where the...

The Dead In Christ Shall Rise First

For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep. For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God and the dead in Christ shall rise first then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air and so shall we ever be with the Lord. 1 Thess. 4 15-17. We regard...

Aion Means An Eon On or AGE

It is a pity that the noun (aion) has not always been rendered by the English word eon, or son, and the adjective by eonian or aionion then all confusion would have been avoided. Webster's Unabridged, defines it as meaning a space or period of time, an era, epoch, dispensation, or cycle, etc. He also gives it the sense of eternity, but no one could have misunderstood, had it been thus rendered. Suppose our translation read What shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the son The...

The Bad Cast Away

Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away. So shall it be at the end of the world, the angels shall come forth and sever the wicked from the just and shall cast them into the furnace of fire there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. Matt.13 47-50. The furnace of fire and gnashing of teeth will be fully explained,...

It Acquires Various Meanings

Luke 20 34, 35. The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage but they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, ** are equal unto the angels, etc. Here that world (tou aionos ekeinou) denotes the eternal world, not because the word aion intrinsically means that, but because the resurrection state is the topic of discourse. The words literally mean that age or epoch, but in this instance the immortal world is the subject that defines the...

The Old Testament Usage

We have concluded, a priori, that the Old Testament must employ the word Aion in the sense of indefinite duration, because that was the uniform meaning of the word in all antecedent and contemporaneous Greek literature. Otherwise the Old Testament would mislead its readers. We now proceed to show that such is the actual usage of the word in the Old Testament. And let us pause a moment on the brink of our investigation to speak of the utter absurdity of the idea that God has hung the great topic...

Applied To Punishment

How many times does the word in all its forms describe punishment Only fourteen times in thirteen passages in the entire New Testament, and these were uttered on ten occasions only. The Noun, Matt. 12 32, Mark 3 29, 2 Pet. 2 17, Jude 13, Rev. 14 11, 19 3, 20 10. The Adjective, Matt. 28 8, 25 41, 46, Mark 3 29, 2 Thess. 1 9, Jude 7, Heb. 6 2. Now if God's punishments are limited, we can understand how this word should be used only fourteen times to define them. But if they are endless how can we...

Words Teaching Endless Duration

But the Blessed Life has not been left dependent on so equivocal a word. The soul's immortal and happy existence is taught in the New Testament, by words that in the Bible are never applied to anything that is of limited duration. They are applied to God and the soul's happy existence only. These words are akataluton, imperishable amarantos and amarantinos, unfading aphtharto, immortal, incorruptible and athanasian, immortality. Let us quote some of the passages in which these words occur Heb....

Index Of Scripture References

Ex.20 5,6 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. Ex.34 7 God will by no means clear the guilty. Deut. 4 24. For the Lord thy God is a consuming fire, even a jealous God. Deut. 32 22-26 For a fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall burn unto the...

The Testimony Of Paul

Paul represented the free gift of life as extending equally with sin. As, by the offense of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. (Rom. 5 18) This is a very important passage. It teaches us, that the free gift of eternal life shall extend equally with sin. On the one hand we are told, judgment came upon all men by sin on the other we find, that the free gift came upon all men unto...

Common Objection Noticed

Then eternal life is not endless, for the same Greek adjective qualifies life and punishment. This does not follow, for the word is used in Greek in different senses in the same sentence as Hab. iii 6. And the everlasting mountains were scattered his ways are everlasting. Suppose we apply the popular argument here. The mountains and God must be of equal duration, for the same word is applied to both. Both are temporal or both are endless. But the mountains are expressly stated to be temporal...

Three Translations Of Aristotle

Pond(5) In describing the highest heaven, the residence of the gods, Aristotle says It is therefore evident that there is neither space, nor time, nor vacuum beyond. Wherefore the things there are not adapted by nature to exist in place nor does time make them grow old neither under the highest (heaven) is there any change of any one of these things, they being placed beyond it but unchangeable, passionless - they continue through all aiona (eternity.) For indeed, the word itself according...

The Barren Fig Tree

Cut it down why cumbereth it the ground Luke 13 7. this language is parallel to that in Matt. iii 10 and now also the axe is laid unto the root of the tree therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire. Man is compared to a fruitless tree, that is destroyed because barren. No point of the description is literal neither the tree, the axe, the fruit, nor the fire. The nation, or the individual, that does not serve God, perishes that is, passes...

Opinions Of Scholars

Campbell well says * * In my judgment, it ought never in Scripture to be rendered Hell, at least, in the sense wherein that word is now universally understood by Christians. In the Old Testament, the corresponding word is Sheol, which signifies the state of the dead in general without regard to the goodness or badness of the persons, their happiness or misery. In translating that word, the seventy have almost invariably used Hadees. ** It is very plain, that neither in the Septuagint...

The Platonic Derivations

We have proceeded on the ground that Aristotle's etymology is authoritative. But nothing is further from the truth. The scholarship of to-day, possessed by an average educated philologist, is far more competent to trace this or any Greek word to its real source, than Plato or Aristotle was able to do. In his analysis of Plato's Cratylus,(8) Grote accurately observes of Plato's etymologies Though sometimes reasonable enough, they are in a far greater number of instances forced, arbitrary, and...

The Building Of God Sure

For we know that, if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. 2 Cor. 5 1. Did the reader ever reflect that the apostle could not say we know that we have eternal mansion, if its acquisition depended on man's efforts, or if any possible act of his could forfeit it He might hope for it, but it would not be certain. His certainty demonstrates that the title rests not on man's conduct, which might forfeit...

Not Inherit The Kingdom Of

Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, witchcraft, hatred, variance, emulation, wrath, strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. Gal.5 19-21. For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an...

Their Works Follow Them

And I heard a voice from heaven, saying unto me, write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth Yea, says the Spirit, that they may rest from their labors and their works do follow them. Rev. 14 13. Not the belief the faith, or the moral and spiritual condition of the last moments of life is here alluded to, but the works. That is, the works of the spirit. These are love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance. Gal. 5 22, 23. These...

Passages Denoting Limited Duration

Let us state more definitely several passages in which all will agree that the word cannot have the sense of endless. Matt.22 22, The care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, the cares of that age or time. Verses 39, 40, 49, The harvest is the end of the world, i.e. age, Jewish age, the same taught in Matt. 24, which some who heard Jesus speak were to live to see, and did see. Luke i 33, And he (Jesus) shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom...

The Resurrection Of Damnation

Marvel not at this for the hour is coming when all who are in their graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life and they that have done evil, unto to resurrection of damnation. John 5 28-29. This resurrection is a moral awakening, and not the final, literal resurrection, as is evident from its phraseology. All men do not participate in it. Only those that have done good, and those that have done evil come forth to life or to...

The Final Consummation

The apostle describes the far-off divine event to which the whole creation moves, thus For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts and I will be to them a God and they shall be to me a people and they shall not teach every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, know the Lord for all shall know me, from the least to the greatest. For I will be merciful to their...

These Events Have Occurred

The events here described too place in this world within thirty years of the time when Jesus spoke. They are now past. In Matt. 24 4, the disciples asked our Lord when the then existing age would end. The word (aion) is unfortunately translated world. Had he meant world he would have employed kosmos, which means world, as aion does not. After describing the particulars he announced that they would all be fulfilled, and the aion end in that generation, before some of his auditors should die. If...

Christ Will Accomplish His Mission

The object of Christ's ministry was to redeem universal humanity. For the Son of Man is come to seek and to save that which was lost. Luke 19 10. Jesus says unto them, my meat is to do the will of him that sent me, and to finish his work. John 4 34. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world but that the world through him might be saved. John 3 17. And we have seen and do testify that the Father sent the Son to be the Savior of the world, 1 John 4 14. 2. He labors in this and...

The Great Proof Text

Matt. 25 46 is the great proof text of the doctrine of endless punishment These shall go away into everlasting punishment, and the righteous into life eternal. 1. That the popular view of this language is incorrect is evident, because those punished are those who have not been good to the poor. Only such are to suffer everlasting punishment. Endless life is the reward, and endless punishment the penalty of works, if this passage teaches the doctrine of endless punishment. Those receive that...

The Greek Classics

It is a vital question How was the word used in the Greek literature with which the Seventy were familiar, that is, the Greek Classics Some years since Rev. Ezra S. Goodwin 13 patiently and candidly traced this word through the Classics, finding the noun frequently in nearly all the writers, but not meeting the adjective until Plato, its inventor, used it. He states, as the result of his protracted and exhaustive examination from the beginning down to Plato, We have the whole evidence of seven...

Gods Punishments Are Remedial

All God's punishments are those of a Father, and must therefore be adapted to the improvement of his children. Heb. 12 5, My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of him For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. If ye endure chastening, God dealeth with you as with sons for what son is he whom the father chasteneth not Furthermore, we have had fathers of our flesh which corrected us, and we gave them reverence....

The Sin Unto Death

If a man see his brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall ask, and he shall give him life for them that sin not unto death. There is a sin unto death I do not say that he shall pray for it. All unrighteousness is sin and there is a sin unto death. 1 John 5 16,17. The sin unto death has often been supposed to be the unpardonable sin, so called, as though any sin could be unpardonable by a God whose mercy is without limit and without end. The apostle was merely alluding to the various...

The Unbeliever Damned

He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved but he that believeth not, shall be damned. Mark 16 16. If we admit that damned means final torment, we shut out of salvation all infants, idiots, insane, and heathen, for they do not believe. We also consign all the rest of mankind to endless torment, for according to the test given, there is not a believer on earth today. We are told in the next verse that all believers may be known by their being able to heal the sick, and take poison without...

Origen And Theodore Of Mopsuestia

Origen used the expressions everlasting fire and everlasting punishment to express his idea of the duration of punishment. Yet he believed that in all cases sin and suffering would cease and be followed by salvation. He was the most learned man of his time, and his example proves that aionion did not mean endless at the time he wrote, A. D. 200 253. Dr. Beecher says 83 As an introduction to his system of theology, he states certain great facts as a creed believed by all the church. In these he...

The Word Translated Punishment Means Improvement

It is thus authoritavely defined Greenfield, Chastisement, punishment. Hedericus, The trimming of the luzuriant branches of a tree or vine to improve it and make it fruitful.Donnegan, The act of clipping or pruning restriction, restraint, reproof, check, chastisement. Grotius, The kind of punishment which tends to the improvement of the criminal, is what the Greek philosophers called kolasis or chastisement. Liddell, Pruning, checking, punishment, chastisement, correction....

Hadees Is Temporary

But is this a final condition No, wherever we locate it, it must end. Paul asks the Romans, Have they the Jews stumbled that they should fall God forbid but rather through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles. For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest you should be wise in your own conceits, that blindness is in part happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in, and so all Israel shall be saved. As it is written, There shall come...

Sheol And Hadees

The Hebrew Old Testament, some three hundred years before the Christian era, was translated into Greek, but of the sixty-four instances where Sheol occurs in the Hebrew, it is rendered Hadees in the Greek sixty times, so that either word is the equivalent of the other. But neither of these words is ever used in the Bible to signify punishment after death, nor should the word Hell ever be used as the rendering of Sheol or Hadees for neither word denotes post-mortem torment. According to the Old...