The Kingdom of God and the Identity of

The kingdom of God, the central motif in the teachings and mission of Jesus of Nazareth, became a focal point for many Catholic T bingen theologians. Beginning in the eighteenth and throughout the nineteenth centuries, numerous efforts were made among Protestant and Catholic philosophers and theologians to champion the moral character of Jesus' message of the kingdom of God. In the wake of these attempts,7 when Drey and his Catholic T bingen colleagues addressed the kingdom of God, they...

Imagination

This higher realism required a new mode of understanding and interpretation. The Romantics focused on the role of imagination in forming concepts -something Kant had left undeveloped in his first critique. The imagination marks that transitional stage between the receptive sensibility and spontaneous understanding. Keep in mind that the Romantics viewed the world as an organic, living system. It follows that the imagination for them was both receptive, in that it takes up the forces that acted...

The Essence of Catholicism Living Tradition Incarnational Church

The identity of Catholicism, the essence (das Wesen) in Drey's words, concerns for these theologians the visible, physical, and institutional character of the Church and the living dynamic character of tradition. What subsequent generations of Catholic theologians would describe in terms of the Church as Corpus Christi, sacramental, and communio was articulated in terms of the kingdom of God and the incarnation of Jesus Christ. For Drey, not only is the kingdom of God the dominant motif of...

The Second Authorship Kierkegaards Authorship from 1846 to 1855

With the publication of Concluding Unscientific Postscript and Two Ages, Kierkegaard brought to a close a five-year period of remarkable literary productivity. He now intended to wind up his writing and seek ordination. Troubled, however, about doubts concerning his fitness for the ministry and increasingly concerned at the unchristian nature of contemporary Christianity, he abandoned this plan and returned to writing. From 1846 onward, however, his writing takes on a different quality. He...

Frank M Turner

It is a fine point whether John Henry Newman (1801-1890) should be considered a theologian. He was a fellow of Oriel College, an ordained priest of the Church of England, and Vicar of St. Mary the Virgin in Oxford. Later, after converting to Roman Catholicism and being ordained a Roman Catholic priest, he established the Oratory of St. Philip Neri located in Birmingham. In the 1850s for several years he presided over the Catholic University in Dublin. He then returned to Birmingham for the rest...

Passionate Thinker

Valdemar Ammundsen, an early commentator on Kierkegaard's work, once remarked, Where Kierkegaard was wrong, that goes on his account. Where Kierkegaard was right, the bill comes to us.1 We can rephrase this comment even more pointedly Where Kierkegaard was wrong, that is a matter between him and God. Where Kierkegaard was right, that is a matter between God and each and every one of us. It is his ability to confront the reader - you and me -with the deepest issues of human existence, and to...

James C Livingston

In this chapter we explore the various ways in which nineteenth-century theologians responded to quite extraordinary advances in the sciences and to their theological and larger cultural significance. These sciences included not only geology, biology, and physics, but also the new social sciences of anthropology, sociology, psychology, and, most importantly, historical-critical research. At least initially, efforts toward some form of theological reconciliation with science were predominant....

Types of Mediation and Complementarity between Theology and Science

Nineteenth-century theologians' dominant response to scientific advances was one of openness and dialogue, of attempts at one or another form of mediation and reconciliation. While sharing the same objective, these responses often were distinct, and they resist being forced into exact categories. Nonetheless, they do reveal common features that distinguish them from other types of response. The three theologians here used to exemplify this response were orthodox Christians, believed in the...

Literary influences on secular theology

As the century progressed, secular theology continued in its established anti-Scholastic vein, concentrating now with peculiar genius and force on Christology and anthropology. The field of secular theology in the latter part of the century was populated mostly by literary figures, philosophers, and publicists, who presented their theological ideas wrapped in an expressive art form. These included Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881), LeoTolstoy (1828-1910), Konstantin Leontyev (1831-1891), and...

Theologians and Their Audiences Texts and Their Contexts

To paint the background landscape for the early generations of Catholic T bingen theologians, one must take care in portraying the struggles of the life of the mind among theologians and philosophers, and natural scientists and poets, that marked this period. But no less important are the struggles of the life of the body and the body politic, where judgments and decisions of state and commerce intersected with the realities of church, education, and the everyday existence of friends and...

Mysticism and Godtalk

When Schleiermacher and his Romantic friends said that one religion without God can be better than another with God,45 they were not so much denying a personal God as they were rejecting the idols of the theisms of their day - the arid god of deism, the projection of a self-satisfied bourgeois society, the first principle of philosophy. In that sense, their reluctance to use the word God can be viewed as a form of apophatic (negative) mysticism. They realized, in other words, the perils of...

Olga Nesmiyanova

Theology in nineteenth-century Russia was a complex and multilayered phenomenon, consisting of several different schools all with their own approaches and styles. Of these, three particular streams can be identified the systematic teaching of theology in the academy the spiritual-didactic theology of the ascetic monastic tradition and, from the mid-nineteenth century, a new brand of secular theology combining elements of philosophy and literary polemics. Of these streams, the theology of the...

Christian Doctrine

The doctrines of the Christian faith are (re)interpreted in light of fundamental Hegelian themes. The dialectical movement in Hegel's philosophy from thesis to antithesis to synthesis suggests a triadic pattern for which the doctrine of the Trinity proves highly congenial. In begetting the Son, the Father goes forth into another. There is then a return to the Father in the union of a third, the Holy Spirit. This peculiarly Christian dogma grasps the movement and self-differentiation in God...

Theological Accommodations to Science

In the often zealous effort to accommodate theology to the new developments in science, numerous nineteenth-century theologians and clergy seriously distorted their theology, the science that they were appropriating, or both. One form of accommodation can be seen in the work of Baden Powell (1796-1860), an Anglican priest, Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford from 182 7 to 1860, a lifelong theological apologist, and contributor of the essay On the Study of the Evidences of Christianity to...

The Critique of Natural Theology

Natural theology from the age of Newton through the mid-nineteenth century played a major role in British religious thought. Writers such as John Ray, William Paley, and the authors of the early Victorian Bridgewater treatises had contended that the observation of nature could lead to the belief in a God that had created a beneficent order. As well as establishing a theological framework supplementing the revealed religion of scripture, British natural theology explicitly upheld a conservative...

Preface

The nineteenth century was one of the most diverse and creative periods in the history of Christian theology. Its problems, challenges, and developments continue to be assimilated by theologians today, while its great thinkers - G. W. F. Hegel, Friedrich Schleiermacher, Soren Kierkegaard, John Henry Newman, et al. - are the subject of intensive international scholarship. The theologies of the nineteenth century can be viewed variously as reactive, creative, and innovative. The Enlightenment of...

The emergence of Neo Spinozism

Apparently not having learned his lesson from trying but failing to find an ally in Lessing, Jacobi sent a copy of his account of the conversation to his friend and fellow critic of pure reason, Herder. In Herder's response, God Some Conversations (1787), we find the turning point in the reception of Spinoza in Germany. For Herder (and, later, for the early Romantics), Spinoza represented an alternative to atheism and theism. First, however, Spinoza's philosophy had to be brought up to date....

Practical Philosophy

In the Groundwork, the Critique of Practical Reason, Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason, and the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant poses a series of moral questions. As well as the antique question How should I act Kant asks, How do I morally justify my acts As well as the question Am I free Kant asks, How do I justify my assumption that I am free Once again, questions of public justification come to the fore. It is important to note that Kant did not have a differentiated notion of the...

The Dissemination of Romanticism

In 1798, the same year they published the first edition of the Lyrical Ballads, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge traveled to Germany for a year. Wordsworth and his sister, Dorothy, stayed in Goslar Coleridge settled eventually in the university town of Gottingen, where he immersed himself in German philosophy and criticism, especially the writings of Kant, Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805), A. W. Schlegel, and F. W. J. Schelling (1775-1854). By most accounts, it was Coleridge who...

Theology in the academy and the input of philosophical anthropology 18801900

The question of what it means to speak of the divine humanity of Christ, and the related question of the love of God as the foundation of theology, also preoccupied the Russian academic tradition. From 1850 to 1880, these two questions were still a marginal consideration, being developed only by such controversial theologians as Aleksandr Bukharev, also known as Archimandrite Theodore but later defrocked. Bukharev was one of the few academic teachers who approached secular religious literature...

Romanticism Spinozism and Pantheism

Pantheism is a third way. (Novalis)59 Because you can see no third alternative, and because you will not deify nature, you deify human consciousness. (Schleiermacher to Jacobi)60 The Romantics were not Spinozists in the sense that they carried out Spinoza's philosophy in its details. The content of Spinoza's thought inspired and guided them in four, very general, ways. His idea of God as immanent cause provided them with a new way of understanding the relation between God (the infinite) and the...

Theology and Science as Incommensurate Domains

The supposition that theology and science are wholly independent spheres was not especially popular in the nineteenth century. Even biblical literalists and sophisticated conservative theologians such as the American Presbyterian Charles Hodge spoke of their higher unity, though this unity might appear veiled to present observers. There were, however, some theologians who held that while theology and science do not collide with one another, they are, nonetheless, disparate spheres of knowledge...

Theology in the academy The Protosov period

With the death of Alexander I (November 19, 1825), the era of the Russian Biblical Association came to an end with the loss of the Tsar's patronage, the group had to give up the project, and disbanded in the spring of 1826. Even so, there were a number of attempts to continue the task of translation up until at least the mid-1850s for example, by Archimandrite Makarius.6 However, these attempts received little support. Now in the period 1825-1838, some interesting new theological tendencies...

Conclusion

At the end is no completed eschatology, but a new question that requires the ongoing existence of Christianity in the world to pursue it and to bring it to an end. Schleiermacher's theology leaves two distinct threads to be gathered up and united only by a history still outstanding in the future. One thread is Schleiermacher's personal conviction concerning the universal love of God directed by wisdom for the redemption of the world. The other thread is the open question of the Trinity. It is a...

Contributors

Nicholas Adams teaches theology and ethics at the University of Edinburgh. He is the author of Habermas and Theology 2006 and several articles on German Idealism in relation to theology and on the inter-faith practice of scriptural reasoning. His principal focus of research is the relation between tradition and public reasoning. Christine Axt-Piscalar is Professor of Systematic Theology at the GeorgAugust University of G ttingen. Her publications include Der Grund des Glaubens. Eine...

The Pantheism Controversy Pantheismusstreit

Indeed, I can barely comprehend how one can be a poet without admiring Spinoza, loving him, and becoming entirely his. Friedrich Schlegel 3 Respectfully offer up with me a lock of hair to the manes of the holy rejected Spinoza The significance of Spinoza for the early German Romantics is to be found in the story that explains how the dominant view changed from Pierre Bayle's 16471706 description of Spinozists as those who have hardly any religion5 to Novalis' description of Spinozism as a...

Early German Romanticism Fruhromantik

I f you haven't yet understood Spinoza, discover for the present the true religious conception of the universe in the Speeches on Religion. Friedrich Schlegel 20 Early German Romanticism marked something genuinely new - the coalescence of astounding literary talents with strong philosophical impulses, first in Jena and then in Berlin. The veins of historical influences are, of course, detectable, but they are not finally determinative. Those who formed the inner circle of early Romanticism...

Christian Theology The Production of Knowledge about Historical Christianity

We now turn to Schleiermacher's thought in theology that appropriates dialectic and hermeneutics as its method in studying the distinct phenomenon of Protestant Christianity. Schleiermacher was ordained a Reformed pastor, and served as pastor from 1809 to1834 to the large Dreifaltigkeitskirche Church of the Triune God in Berlin, a mixed Lutheran and Reformed congregation. Yet Schleiermacher began to articulate his thoughts on religion in 1799 with the Speeches its lengthier title is, in...

Notes

Brown, The National Churches of England, Ireland, and Scotland, 1801-1846 New York Oxford University Press, 2002 . 2 See Frank M. Turner, The Newman of the Apologia and the Newman of History, in John Henry Cardinal Newman, Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons New Haven, Conn. Yale University Press, 2008 , 54-76. 3 John Henry Newman, Certain Difficulties Felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teaching Considered In Twelve Lectures Addressed in 1850 to the Party of the Religious Movement of...

Notes On Liberal Theology

All works are by Soren Kierkegaard either pseudonymously or non- pseudonymously unless otherwise specified. 1 Quoted by Howard A. Johnson in his introduction to Soren Kierkegaard, Attack upon Christendom, trans. Walter Lowrie Princeton, N.J. Princeton University Press, 1968 , xxxiii. 2 A truly Kierkegaardian study of Kierkegaard's work should therefore itself be written in indirect communication and under a pseudonym 3 Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments, I 627. 4 See...

The First Authorship Kierkegaards Authorship until 1846

Kierkegaard's first full-length published work was From the Papers of One Still Living 1838 , a critique of Hans Christian Andersen's novel Only a Fiddler, which Kierkegaard attacks for not having a life-view. This concern for a life-view, to find a truth worth living or dying for, as he puts it in an early journal entry,15 is a theme that runs through Kierkegaard's authorship. Kierkegaard's next significant work was his doctrinal dissertation The Concept of Irony with Continual Reference to...

Philosophical Theology

Hegel's theology was formulated in conscious opposition to the deism of earlier Enlightenment thinkers, to Kant's reduction of religion to an aid to moral performance, and to Schleiermacher's perceived grounding of religion in subjective feeling. Moreover, it eschewed a return to the rationalist tradition which stressed the transcendence of the impassible God over against the finite, contingent creation. The key concept in Hegel's theology is that of spirit Geist . It has several connotations...