Augustine Casiday

'The Son of Man is come to seek and save that which is lost' (Luke 19.19) with this description of their Lord's mission, Christians understandably came to regard salvation and sin as master themes for their lives. In fact, these themes are so pervasive that discussions ofthem take on as many forms as Christianity itself does. This near ubiquity makes it exceedingly difficult to appreciate the subject in a way that does justice to evidence from across the Mediterranean basin and Near East in...

Western Christianities

The story of Western Christianities from Constantine to the close of the sixth century is one of both expansion and the formation of diverse Christianities. The expansion is slow and difficult to trace at the beginning of the fourth century, the Western regions of the Roman empire were much less Christianised than the East, only an estimated 2 per cent of the population.1 Although the progress can be tentatively gauged from the archaeological and epigraphic records or from the multiplication of...

Primary Sources

Acta sanctorum martyrum orientalium et occidentalium (Rome, 1748 reprint Westmead, 1970) Bardaisan. The book of the laws of the countries, trans. H. J. W Drijvers (Assen, 1964) The book of the Himyarites, ed. A. Moberg (Lund, 1924) Ephrem. Carmina Nisibena (CSCO 218-19, 240-1) Hymni de Abraham Qidunaya etJuliano Saba (CSCO 322-3) Hymni de azymis, de crucifixione et de resurrectione Christi (CSCO 248-9) Hymni deparadiso et contra Julianum (CSCO 174-5)

Samuel Rubenson

The emergence of monasticism in the East, its rapid development in the fourth and fifth centuries and its establishment as a major institution in Christianity are among the most significant phenomena in the history of Christianity. Although asceticism as such has deep roots in ancient society, both in the various religious traditions of the Eastern Mediterranean and in the Greek philosophical tradition, the emergence ofmonasticism constitutes a strikingly rapid and radical change of social,...

Info

The nunnery is completely enclosed and separated from society once a nun enters the house she can never leave again and she may only receive occasional visitors in the salutatorium, or monastic parlour, under surveillance. In church, the nuns are separated from the populace of Arles and heard, but not seen, as they sing their intercessory liturgy. But solutions to related questions were not always easily reached. Caesarius has difficulties in deciding what is to be done in the case of nuns who...

I42

In various Central Asian areas, including Kushan. By the end of the fifth century, missionaries including John of Resaina had established churches among the White Huns in Bactria. During this same period there were East Syrian bishoprics established in cities along the Oxus river, in Naishapur, Herat, Gilan and Merv. Other bishoprics were established in Kaskar, Samarkand and Turkmenistan. There were certainly Christians there to support these bishoprics when they were established. In 591,...

Rebecca Lyman

Heresiology was the combative theological genre for asserting true Christian doctrine through hostile definition and ecclesiastical exclusion. In the fourth to sixth centuries the union of Christian orthodoxy with Roman political power can easily seem to modern eyes to be a bad match. Emperors peeved by the inability of religious practitioners to come to an enforceable consensus for the protection of the state worked with bishops increasingly polarised by local traditions and civic unrest in a...

The aftermath of Chalcedon and the Acacian schism

As schisms within the churches of the Nicene tradition broke out after Chalcedon, the emperors and bishops of Constantinople faced the consequences. They tried to re-integrate Nicaeno-Chalcedonian Christianity 27 ILCV 980. The inscription is dedicated to St John the Evangelist, at whose shrine in Ephesus Hilary had prayed for help. See A. Mandouze, Prosopographie, ii.i 989-92 H. Chadwick, The church in ancient society, 558-67. 28 This episode is discussed by K.-H. Uthemann in ch. 19, below. 29...

Selected Specialised Studies And Sources

V 'Le falsificazioni simmachiane', Apollinaris 68 (1995) 205-20 Apostolic constitutions (SC 320, 329, 336) Barlow, C. W, ed. Martini episcopi Bracarensis opera omnia (New Haven, 1950) Benesevic, V N., ed. Ioannis Scolastici Synagoga L titulorum (Munich, 1937) Collins, Raymond F. 'The origins of church law', The jurist 61 (2001) 134-56 Concilia Africae a.345-a.525 (CCSL 149) Concilia Galliaea.314-a.506 (CCSL 148) Concilia Galliaea.511-a.695 (CCSL 148a) Connolly, R. H., ed. Didascalia...

Older Histories Of Canon Law And Reference Works

Dictionnaire de droit canonique, 7 vols. (Paris, 1924-65) Garcia y Garcia, Antonio. Historia del derecho canOnico, 1 El primer milenio (Salamanca, 1967) Gaudemet, Jean and Gabriel Le Bras, eds. Histoire du droit et des institutions de l'eglise en occident Vol. i Gabriel Le Bras. Prolegom nes (Paris, 1955) Vol. ii Jean Dauvillier. Les temps apostoliques 1er siecle (Paris, 1970) Vol. Iii Jean Gaudemet. L' glise dans l'empire romain IVe-Ve siecles (Paris, 1958) Jaff , P., ed. Regestapontificum...

1

So that visitors collected oil, earth, water, dust or a rock from the place. Chrysostom catalogues these devotions in one sermon delivered at a martyr's festival Stay beside the tomb of the martyr there pour out fountains of tears. Have a contrite mind raise a blessing from the tomb. Take her as an advocate in your prayers and immerse yourself perpetually in the stories of his struggles. Embrace the coffin, nail yourself to the chest. Not just the martyrs' bones, but even their tombs and chests...

H A Drake

Near the beginning of the period covered by this volume, Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, the celebrated 'father of church history', composed two addresses in which he praised the accomplishments of Constantine's reign. Toward its end, another Christian clergyman, the deacon Agapetus, addressed a series of aphorisms on kingship to the emperor Justinian.1 The two works serve as a convenient means to bracket the monumental changes that the church underwent during these centuries as it moved from the...

I87

'Introduction Approaches to Coptic pilgrimage', in Pilgrimage and holy space in late antique Egypt Leiden, 1998 , 3-48 Religion in Roman Egypt Assimilation and resistance Princeton, 1998 'Syncretism and the holy man in late antique Egypt', JECS 11 2003 339-85 'Voices, books, and dreams The diversification of divination media in late antique Egypt', in Sarah Iles Johnston and Peter Struck, eds., Mantike. Studies in ancient divination Leiden, 2005 , 233-54 Geffcken, Johannes. The last days of...

Secondary Sources

The early episcopal career of Athanasius Notre Dame, 1991 'Atti del colloquio internazionale sul concilio di Aquileia', Antichita Altoadriatiche 21 1981 Badet, P. and D. DeDecker. 'Historicite et actualite des canons disciplinaires du concile d'Antioche', Augustinianum 37 1997 315-25 Barnes, T. D. Athanasius and Constantius Theology and politics in the Constantinian empire Cambridge, MA, 1993 Baum, Wilhelm and Dietmar Winkler. The apostolic church of the East A concise history...

Primary Texts

Yves Courtonne, Saint Basile. Lettres Paris, 1957, 1961, 1966 Bidez,J., and F. Cumont, eds. Imperatoris Caesaris Flavii Claudii Iuliani epistulae, leges, poemata, fragmenta varia Paris, 1922 Callinicus of Rufinianae. De vita S. Hypatii liber Leipzig, 1895 SC 177 Codex Justinianus CJ . Ed. P. Kr ger, Corpus iuris civilis Berlin, 1929 Cosmas of Jerusalem. Scholia in Gregorii Nazianzeni carmina PG 38 341-680 Damascius. Das Leben des Philosophen Isidors von Damaskios aus...

I2

A reluctant heretic Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1988 Richard, M. 'Notes sur les floril ges dogmatiques du Ve et du VIe si cle', Actes du VIe Congres Internationale d'Etudes Byzantines Brussels, 1950 , 1 307-18 Rousseau, P. Basil of Caesarea Berkeley, 1998 Sahas, D. John of Damascus on Islam Leiden, 1972 Shaw, B. 'African Christianity Disputes, definitions and Donatists', in Orthodoxy and heresy in religious movements Discipline and dissent Lewiston, NY, 1992 , 5-34 Sillett, H. M....

Karlheinz Uthemann

The earliest biblical confessions of Jesus were varied, yet linked. He was the Messiah, the fulfilment of Israel's hopes and the eschatological accomplishment of God's reign, even as he was also a prophet promised by Moses and a teacher in the wisdom tradition. His death demonstrated God's salvation his resurrection proclaimed him alive. Therefore, as the Christian community moved from the Old Testament, the word ofGod, to the Christian Bible, these different Christologies were connected....

Andre De Halleux Hypostase Personne

As long as both the unity and distinction were safeguarded and neither an 'Arian' subordinationism nor a 'Sabellian' modalism was intended. The Alexandrian council thus based its terminological tolerance on an admission from both sides of the validity of the other's emphasis, whether that be the unity of the substance or the irreducible reality ofthe three divine subsistents. However, the lack of terminological consensus continued to undermine the commitment to tolerance, which was further...

C. Munier Carthage. V. Councils

Respects so vital for the future of Christianity in the West, as the towering genius of Augustine alone assured. Africa is usually considered the most 'Christianised' region of the Western empire. There were about 250 episcopal sees in all Roman Africa around the year 300 by the early fifth century, the number had soared to 650.137 During the fourth century the majority of the often only superficially Romanised population apparently became Christian.138 At the beginning of the fifth century,...

Spain

As with Gaul, the watershed for Christianity in Spain was the invasion of various Germanic nations from 406 7. In 409, the Vandals, Alans and Sueves crossed the Pyrenees and wrought havoc in the provinces of Roman Spain. Only Tarraconnensis remained under Roman rule. Between 416 and 418, victorious Visigothic forces now Roman allies repelled the Alans and the Siling Vandals. In 429 the Vandals left Spain for North Africa. In two invasions 468 and 472 3 , the Visigothic king Euric brought Spain...

Contributors

Khaled Anatolios, Weston Jesuit School of Theology Paul M. Blowers, Emmanuel School of Religion Beat Brenk, Universita di Roma I 'La Sapienza' and emeritus, Universit t Basel Alan Brown, Trinity College, Cambridge David Bundy, Fuller Theological Seminary Augustine Casiday, University of Wales, Lampeter H. A. Drake, University of California, Santa Barbara David Frankfurter, University of New Hampshire Rowan A. Greer, emeritus, Yale Divinity School David G. Hunter, Iowa State University Samuel N....