The regular clergy in the Habsburg domains and in Poland

In the hereditary Habsburg domains the contemplative orders, the mendicant orders, and the congregations of regular clergy had all played a role in the Catholic re-conquest of territories which had been lost to the Turks or to the Protestant Reformations. Perhaps more than any other groups, it was the Jesuits and the Capuchins who effectively embodied Austrian Catholicism: the Jesuits, with their schools and colleges at Vienna, Graz, Klagenfurt, and Innsbruck, but also with cultural and religious outposts in Wittelsbach Bavaria and the Catholic areas of the Holy Roman Empire; the Capuchins, with their aggressive missions active in the most difficult moments of the fight against Protestantism and, above all, against the Ottoman Empire. The situation in Bohemia was similar, where the Jesuits were solidly entrenched after the re-conquest, with eight colleges and eight residences, and where the Capuchins could claim thirty convents by 1782.

In Hungary and the Triple Kingdom the religious orders were more varied. Here at the time of the Josephist suppressions, there were some 152 male monasteries and convents with a total of 3,234 religious, to which could be added an additional twenty-five convents and monasteries in Transylvania. The majority of the male regulars belonged to the eighty-four Franciscan institutions, but twenty-five were in Jesuit houses, and another twenty-four belonged to the Piarists. In Hungary, in particular, Josephism would take a heavy toll on this clergy, with the suppression in 1781 of 134 male and female houses, with the expulsion of 1,484 male religious and 190 female religious, and

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