Regalist trends in Spain and Portugal

On several occasions in the first half of the seventeenth century, Philip IV and his ministers had been at loggerheads with Rome, but the pressures of war and rebellion had made it impossible to press their points. However, the conferring of the throne of Spain on the Bourbon dynasty in 1700 (confirmed by the Treaty of Utrecht, 1713) signalled the turn towards a more Gallican style of royal control over the church. The post-1700 monarchy negotiated concordats with the papacy in 1737 and 1753, both emphatically confirming royal authority, a tendency known as 'regalism' within a Spanish context. The 1753 concordat was particularly significant: the papacy handed over to the crown the rights of presentation to most benefices, 12,000 in all, leaving only fifty-two in his Holiness's hands. It was also made clear that the crown did not recognize the papal grant of jurisdiction as the necessary foundation of its overseas patronato. It became the norm for clerics to exalt the Bourbon

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