Protestants in Europe and North America

The period of the English Civil War (1640-60) lies somewhat outside the chronological boundaries of this volume, but it provides a unique opportunity to hear women's religious ideas, for the hiatus in censorship during the war allowed many religious works by women - and men who were not officials in established churches - to be published. Women's leadership and actions during the war also served as one example of the 'world turned upside down', which the Restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660 sought to set right again. That Restoration and the re-establishment of the Anglican Church led many English Puritans to immigrate, and they took their ideas about gender and sexuality as well as theology to continental Europe and ultimately to North America.

Though most Puritan writers and preachers did not break with Anglicans or continental Protestants on the need for wifely obedience or women's

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