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the Charter Act of 1813, the work of the missionaries, the influence of trade and the introduction of western education served to stimulate a cultural revival among Bengal's growing intelligentsia. After 1814, the learned Brahman, Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) began making his mark in Calcutta as the father of this Hindu Renaissance. Well versed in English and the western classics, as well as his native Hindu culture, he inspired a movement among Indians for a fresh appreciation of the Upanishads and other Hindu texts.

As a whole, the Protestant impact on missions in India began to be felt only from the beginning of the eighteenth century. The pioneering Protestant missions in India before 1815 had been those of the Tranquebar mission and the Serampore mission of William Carey and his associates. Both missionary movements gave pride of place to the Bible and worked to translate it into several local languages, while the Serampore mission, in particular, stressed education and journalism.

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