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power in Berlin in 1740, things changed drastically. The new King of Prussia was a fervent believer in the ideas of the Enlightenment. He despised the kind of piety that Halle propagated and did not hesitate to make his thoughts on the matter clear. In 1723, due to pressure from Francke, Frederick William I had decided to ban the Enlightened philosopher Christian Wolff from Halle University. In 1740, one of the first actions of his son, Frederick the Great, was to reinstall Wolff in his chair at Halle. To Halle Pietists and beyond, this was an unmistakable signal that the time in which they had enjoyed the protection of the Berlin court was over.

Zinzendorf s movement was also affected by the beginning of the first of the Silesian Wars. Perhaps it is not sheer speculation to assume that Zinzendorf s strong interest in Pennsylvania in the 1740s was due to his impression that with Frederick the Great's assumption of the throne, central Europe was lost to the followers of true faith and that God's remaining children needed an alternative place to live and labour until Christ returned. Perhaps, at least in part, the same conviction can also be found among Halle Pietists. This would explain why the followers of Halle and Herrnhut bitterly confronted each other in Pennsylvania in the 1740s and in the 1750s, as each group attempted to gain influence and control.

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