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in Ireland 64-7

in Latin America 373

and morality 174

in Netherlands 137,363

in North America 394, 404, 500-4, 507, 514

and papacy 15,18,19-21,31,308, 475

and payment of clergy 121-3

in Philippines 452, 454-6

in Poland 18

in Portugal 17,18, 26,315, 373 in Protestant Europe 15, 41-8,124-7, 592-3 in Scotland 55, 67-70 and social discipline 199-201 in Spain 18, 20, 24-5,319,373, 592 and suppression of the Jesuits 304 and toleration 348-9 churches: independent black 530-1 as temples 245-7 see also architecture Civil War, English 1, 54,167-9, 397 Clapham Sect 528, 578 Clarke, Samuel 251, 254, 257, 367 Clarkson, Thomas 425, 517 Cleland, John, Fanny Hill 274, 275 Clement X, Pope 20 Clement XI, Pope: and France 23 and Ottoman Turks 20 and Philippines 456 and Rites Controversy 491, 492

Clement XII, Pope 440 Clement XIII, Pope 17, 451 and church and state 21, 29 and Jansenism 312

and Jesuits 314, 316,317-18, 320, 321-2,323 Clement XIV Pope, and suppression of the

Jesuits 19, 302, 323,324,325, 463 Clément de Feillet, Abbé 312,313, 317, 321,

clergy: celibacy 180 and church property 75 and church and state 18-19, 42, 70,373, 514 decrease in recruitment 4, 98, 279, 539, 568 and economy 77-8 education 19, 25, 30, 91,161-2, 538 European Catholic 89-108 in Habsburg Empire 105 indigenous 383, 415, 417, 447, 448, 450, 458,

464-5, 532

Latin American 373,374, 383 Protestant 109-27, 563 career patterns 117-20 education 43,113-17 income 121-4

professionalization 111,120,126-7 social background 111-13 regular 89

in East Asia 451, 452-3, 455-6, 457-8, 462 in France 102-4, 540, 543, 550-1, 557, 565,

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