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had to take jobs outside of the church due to an oversupply of candidates. Even after university training replaced the education received in diocesan secondary schools in Sweden in the 1650s, the local diocese continued to supervise the education received at university. The clergy of the established churches of England and Ireland were educated respectively at Oxford and Cambridge and at Trinity College, Dublin. While at university, these students for the Anglican ministry had the opportunity to mingle with gentry and to establish contacts that would become indispensable when they eventually sought a parish.

Though the geographical mobility of students had decreased since the early seventeenth century, many students for the ministry continued to receive their education outside of their country of birth. According to W R. Ward, Slovaks travelled to Jena, Germans to England and the Netherlands, the Swiss to Saumur, Heidelberg, Herbon, Leiden and Franeker, Hungarian Lutherans to Wittenberg and their Reformed countrymen to the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Oxford. Exclusion from territorial universities and active harassment meant tolerated Dissenters and persecuted Protestants had to seek their education elsewhere. In their quest to maintain the ideal of an educated ministry, English Old Dissent established their own academies. Over time these foundations encouraged the dilution of doctrinal conservatism that in turn was countered by the establishment of a number of evangelical academies from the 1730s. Despite their importance to the emergence of Dissent, these academies varied greatly in size and in the standard of education they offered. Other Dissenters and persecuted groups were forced to receive their training in other countries. Owing to their exclusion from Trinity College, Dublin, Presbyterians of Ulster were forced to travel to Scotland, particularly Glasgow, to receive a university education. In the Habsburg lands, the need to travel abroad was imperative, though it did have the advantage of establishing international links. For the Hungarian Reformed Church in particular, these links were forged early and maintained throughout the period. Special bursaries were formed for Hungarian students and the colleges at Sarospatak, Nargyenyed, and Debrecen received foreign endowment. Prospective French Protestant ministers were also forced by persecution to find opportunities for education abroad, establishing, with the surreptitious help of Benedict Picet of Geneva, a seminary at Lausanne that functioned from 1727 to 1809.

The education and training of ministers did not end with their attendance at university, as church authorities continued to supervise them to ordination. The supervision of candidates for the ministry provided by hierarchical church structures was less intensive than that provided by Presbyterianism. In the churches of England and Ireland ordination examinations were usually less

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