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mocking, made common cause. After 1715, and the defeat and death of Louis XIV, few such common causes would again present themselves.

In the late seventeenth century the habits of secrecy and anonymous publishing now emerged as tools to be used against censorship or established authorities anywhere. On both sides of the English Channel, most particularly in Protestant Europe, a new republic of the mind was being proclaimed by journalists and pamphleteers. A great many citizens were excluded from this new 'republic of letters', nevertheless - so the hope went - Europeans were on the threshold of a new, enlightened age, and the abuses that have been introduced into the world will be corrected.3 Republics, even in the mind, must be the answer; they are freer places, where prudence and 'continence . . . passed from mother to daughters as an aspect of religion' mean that the decadence of the French court could be avoided. Of course, such pieties about the virtues found among citizens of republics did not stop the publishers from describing in the same book, and in lurid detail, the mischief of kings and their mistresses.4

Protestantism and orthodoxy

The complex relationship between Protestantism and the earliest stirring of the Enlightenment's critique of Christianity needs to be addressed. People generally do not just wake up one morning and stop believing in God, or settle for deism when they have just been to church the previous Sunday. Rather, what appears to be happening in the lost world that Pierre Marteau partially opens, involves a gradual metamorphosis. The move went from believing in the reasonableness of the Protestant version of Christianity - vividly highlighted by the obvious irrationality of injustice and persecution as being witnessed in the 1680s - towards the belief that simply being reasonable holds the key to virtuous living. If the pilgrim got to that place the only thing to do on a Sunday morning was to read the newspaper or write letters. In the first instance, the Enlightened critique of Christianity emerged first in Protestant circles, and while plenty of Catholics could criticize their church, Protestant thinkers tended to be in the vanguard that pushed anticlericalism into open heterodoxy, finally deism, atheism, and pantheism.

Another bold impostor from Cologne allows this turning point within the international Protestant consciousness to be illustrated more concretely. Le Jesuite secularise (1683) wanted the world to know how evil the Jesuits had become. Jesuits were assassins in disguise, pensioners in the employ of Spain, 'pedagogues... sodomites'. By comparison, Calvinists acted reasonably in their congregations, but thinking about it, so too did the Socinians, i.e., those who

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