convex, and a pediment with both arched and triangular tympana. Similarly, Sant' Ivo della Sapienza (1643-50) displayed original forms such as the hexagon in the shape of an alveolus and a shell-like triple spiral. Several architects followed comparable paths. Pietro da Cortona combined hemispherical and parallelepiped forms in the facade of Santa Maria della Pace (Rome, 1656) and created new effects with pilasters and columns. At Santa Maria in Capitelli (1663-67), Carlo Rinaldi produced two orders of columns, one in the front, the other deep-set in the wall. But the most Borrominian of them all was probably Guarino Guarini. A Theatine priest and scholar of mathematics, he created undulating facades and centred covers, their structures formed of complex stacks. Thus, in the Chapel of the Sindona in Turin, a staggered superposition of several levels of hexagons rose above a circular drum, each element not segmental but arched. A late echo of this type of structure is seen in San Gaetano, the Nice Theatines' Church, built in 1744 by B. Vittone, himself a disciple of Guarini.

Nevertheless, such bold individual creations did not correspond with the overall taste of the period. Bernini himself showed restraint in Sant' Andrea al Quirinale (1658-70) with an oval cylindrical drum flanked by small chapels, and a semi-circular portico. Between 1660 and 1670, the classical reaction became more pronounced, as shown in the facade of Santa Maria in Via Lata (Rome, 1658-62) where Pietro da Cortona renounced the curved lines he had employed in preceding years in favour of a superposition of two porticos with almost no projections. In 1662 in the Piazza del Popolo, Carlo Rainaldi designed two nearly twin churches, fronted by antique-style porticos. Carlo Fontana moved in a similar direction with San Marcello al Corso (1682).

The triumph of the grand classical style was ensured in Great Britain by Christopher Wren, who saw in the Great Fire of London (1666) an opportunity that finally led to the decision to rebuild fifty-two churches. His ideas were realized in the rebuilding of the first twenty churches, carried out as early as 1670-71. Saint Stephen in Walbrook (London, 1670) consists of an outside structure in parallelepiped form with a dome, the whole according to a central plan. Wren pursued his thinking in the reconstruction of Saint Paul's Cathedral in London, where he tookSaint Peter's in Rome as inspiration. Some years later, architects in charge of implementing the 1711 Tory Act remained faithful to Wren's experiments in urban monumentalism. They included his collaborator, Vanbrugh; Hawksmoor, with his basilica plan at Christchurch, Spitalfields (1714-20), his design of Saint Mary's Woolnoth, inscribed in a square (1716-24), and Saint George-in-the-East, with almost neo-classical modenature; James

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