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relationships between and within denominations. In Holland for example, Napoleon wanted to replace the 'anarchy of practical toleration' with a streamlined system merging the smaller sects into three official religions. Charles Lebrun, his representative, sought to temper Napoleon's regimen, acknowledging the divisions and differences, for example, between Anabaptists and Calvinists, old and new Lutherans, Sephardic and Ashkenazic Jews.11

Priests had a mixed reaction to Napoleonic religious policies. Administrators enlisted them as civil servants and, if possible, as agents of order in the countryside. Although some reformist clergy seconded the suppression of 'superstitions' or used their influence to support the empire, it was not always so easy to convert them to the total Napoleonic vision. Some priests in Italian, Spanish, and German lands were potential allies who had been inspired by Jansenist or democratizing ideas. But for them - as for Grégoire and many constitutional clergy in France - the concordats and policies of the early 1800s marked a moment of disillusionment, a missed opportunity for clerical democratization and inner reform of the church. Many other priests, especially those with ultramontane sympathies in locations like Belgium or Naples, only paid lip-service to ecclesiastical reforms. Michael Broers hasfound countless incidences in Italy of priests who used the liturgy as a political weapon and blatantly refused to celebrate the required Te Deums or public prayers for the emperor and his victories. Most famously, the clergy of Rome deserted the stalls of St Peter's when it came time to 'celebrate the birth of the King of Rome "in his own city" in 1811'.12 Nowhere did the clergy play a greater role in fomenting opposition to Napoleon than in Spain. Especially once Napoleon had appointed his brother Joseph to replace the Spanish Bourbons in 1808, clergymen from Galicia to Andalusia championed a veritable crusade of guerrilla warfare against the 'Antichrist' Napoleon and his anticlerical armies.

Napoleon did not improve matters by undermining his diplomatic relations with Pope Pius VII. Although the two men never saw eye to eye, at least in the early 1800s they had negotiated two concordats and the pope had participated, albeit reluctantly, in Napoleon's coronation as emperor. However, as Napoleon continued to expand his empire, the pope strove to maintain his political independence and quietly declined to accede to Napoleon's growing list of demands, despite the emperor's repeated threats. In 1806, Pius VII denied recognition to Napoleon's brother Joseph Bonaparte as the newly installed King of Naples. Although he agreed to begin negotiations with Napoleon for a new concordat to govern the German states, the pope balked in 1807 at joining the alliance against Britain and granting the French use of his ports. Napoleon

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