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and Latin American Church 374-8 and mission 3-4, 475 and Philippines 452, 456 and resistance to French Empire 589 and sermons 140-1,142

Spalding, Johannes Joachim 48,143 SPCK see Society for Promoting Christian

Knowledge Spener, Philip Jakob 33-7,38,171,329,331 class meetings 33,330,332 and eschatology 35, 330-1 and Jews 331-2 and ministers 110,125 and mysticism 332 Pia Desideria 33-5,330, 332 and preaching 134 SPG see Society for the Propagation of the Gospel

Spinoza, Baruch 48, 265, 271-2, 273

spirituality, Pietist 36

Sri Lanka: and Protestantism 447-8

and Roman Catholicism 447-8 state: and the church see church and state and education 162-4 State church: in England 54-6, 359, 362 in Ireland 55, 64-5, 360 in Scotland 55, 67-70 see also establishment Steinmetz, Johann Adam 335,341,342 Sterne, Laurence 293 Stinstra, Johannes 363 Stoddard, Solomon 341, 405, 406, 407 Stukeley, William 276 Sulpicians 97,162

in North America 401, 403 Sunday school movement 578 supernatural, in popular religion 187-9 superstition 50,189-93, 201 and Enlightenment 190, 203 in Latin America 381, 382 and Protestantism 189-93 and Roman Catholicism 78, 94,189,190-3, 202-3, 228, 246, 453 Sutherland, Donald 80 Sweden: and church and state 44,124 and clergy 112,114,122,124,125 and education 148 and Lutheranism 47 and patronage 117 and Protestant revival 580 Swedenborg, Emanuel 334, 582 Swift, Jonathan 65, 66 Switzerland: Einsiedeln Abbey 236, 237, 240

and Protestantism 44, 47 and reveil 53 and revivalism 337 see also Geneva syncretism 386-7, 523, 563 Syro-Malabar Catholic Christians see Thomas Christians tabernacles 239, 246

Tackett, Timothy 568

Tannenbaum, Frank 533

Tanucci, Bernardo 319, 320

taxation, in North American colonies 9, 409,

501, 502, 503, 504-5 taxation of the church 18, 74 in Austria 29, 74 in England 61 in France 22, 23, 74 in Italy 27

in Latin America 375 in Spain 74 teachers: professionalization 154

training 154,155,164 teinds (tithes), in Scotland 68,121 temple, church as 245-7 Tenchi Hajimari no Koto 468 Tennent, Gilbert 340,341, 406 Teresa of Avila, St 101,103,168,178, 200,384 Tersteegen, Gerhard 333,338,343 Test and Corporation Acts 62, 63, 64, 66, 68,

355, 358

repeal 363,364,365,366 Theatine Order: church buildings 230, 232 in India 442 in Italy 92 theology: liberal 364 natural 289, 405 in North America 408 pastoral 116 Puritan 400 in universities 163 Theophilanthropy 558 Thiers, Jean-Baptiste 202, 244 Thiery 218, 221 Thirty-Nine Articles 54

Dissenters' subscription to 356, 360, 364-5 Thirty Years' War, effects 1, 4, 7,15 Thomas, Keith 201 Thomas Christians 435-7, 479 Thomasius, Christian 48, 49 Tibet, and Roman Catholicism 443 Tillotson, John 132,141,143 Timor, and Christian missions 448-9 tithes 72, 73, 84,121 in England 56, 74, 364 in France 75, 540, 576 in Ireland 112

in Latin America 375, 542 in North America 395 in Scotland 68,121 Toland, John 6, 48, 269, 271, 273, 275, 279 toleration: and confessional states 348,349-56 Toleration Edict of (Austria; 1782) 30, 31, 46,

212, 213, 351 Toleration Edict of (France; 1787) 350, 537, 541

in England 354-5,356,364-5 and Enlightenment 5, 6, 49, 51, 269, 284, 288, 290 in France 22, 24, 349-50 in French Empire 569, 571-2 and French Revolution 9, 543-4, 548, 557,

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