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regular clergy (including the Jesuits) from teaching in secondary schools. This transformation entailed, first, a centralization which removed the control of teaching matters from the University of Turin and, second, a move towards uniformity, which sought to regulate school administration, teachers' qualifications, and the curriculum of studies. A central scholarship school, the Collegio delle Provinzie, was established which granted awards more objectively, according to the population density of each province. The plan was to restructure the ruling class and create a new elite of civil servants by introducing meritocratic principles and incorporating the better pupils emerging from the ceto civile. The idea spread rapidly and gained European dimensions with the series of state expulsions of the Jesuits: first in Portugal (1759), then in France (1764), Spain (1767), and the Kingdom of Naples (1768), followed by the complete abolition of the Company through the bull Dominus ac Redemptor in 1773. The suppression of the largest teaching order in Europe was experienced by several countries as a profound rupture which seriously affected the religious education and direction of the younger generation. It also provoked a fundamental re-examination and reorganization of public education. This modernization was based on three principles: firstly, the concepts of public instruction and national education emerged, along with the assumption that the entire teaching establishment belonged in the state's domain. Such demands could lead to direct conflicts with church authorities, as occurred in 1783 when Joseph II decided to create a series of 'general' seminaries where future priests would be trained independently from the episcopacy. Priests were henceforth to be seen as state functionaries charged with ensuring the local civic order. Secondly, a corps of teachers was created which differed radically in their education, allegiance, and recruitment from the members of religious congregations. And lastly, such national educational schemes brought with them the renewal of teaching programmes, marked by a revaluation of the system of the 'humanities'. It is impossible to explore here the gap that may well have existed between legislation and reality. It seems likely, however, that the driving force of this movement was to be found less in the language of its advocates -whether from ideas concerning administrative practices, or from new governmental forms of 'Enlightened' despotism - than in the long-term process by which the modern state was constructed, a process which demanded an increasing number of skilled administrators to serve it. The Catholic clergy, as the Protestant, would henceforth be treated as state administrators, a transformation that would only further accelerate during the decade of the French Revolution. (Translation by Jane Yeoman and Timothy Tackett)

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