3. CharlesJ.-H.Macdonald, 'FolkCatholicismandpre-SpanishreligionsinthePhilippines', Philippine studies, 52 (2004), pp. 83, 88, 89.

4. Reginald D. Cruz, '"Devotion and defiance": Religious communities for women established in colonial Philippines prior to 1750', in Anne C. Kwantes (ed.), Chapters in Philippine church history (Manila: OMF Literature, 2001), p. 36, note 3.

5. Nick Joaquin, 'The Beatas of 17th-century Manila', in Joaquin, Culture and history: Occasional notes on the process of Philippine becoming (Manila: Solar, 1988), p. 121.

6. Luciano P. R. Santiago, 'The development of the religious congregations for women in the Philippines during the Spanish period (1565-1898)', Journal of Sophia Asia studies, 12 (1994), p. 53.

7. See D. Gerona, 'In defence of the natives: The church in the midst of colonial abuses (1600-1790)', Ateneo de Naga University, 16 August 2003, MainWeb/research/art02.html.

8. On the visitation controversy, see Horacio de la Costa, 'Episcopal jurisdiction in the Philippines during the Spanishregime', in Gerald H. Anderson (ed.), Studies in Philippine church history (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1969), pp. 44-64.

9. Pablo Fernandez, History of the church in the Philippines (1521-1898) (Manila: National Book Store, 1979), pp. 112-13.

10. John N. Schumacher, 'Syncretism in Philippine Catholicism: Its historical causes', Philippine studies, 32 (1984), p. 257.

11. Salvador P. Escoto, 'The ecclesiastical controversy of 1767-1776: A catalyst of Philippine nationalism', Journal of Asian history, 10 (1976), p. 105.

12. See the relevant maps in Joseph de Moidrey, La hiérarchie catholique en Chine, en Coree et au Japon (1307-1914) (Shanghai: T'ou-sè-wè, 1914).

13. Claudia von Collani, P. Joachim Bouvet S. J. Sein Leben und sein Werk (Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 1985), pp, 11-17.

14. CatherineJami, 'For whose greater glory? Jesuit strategies and science during the Kangxi Reign (1662-1722)', in Wu Xiaoxin (ed.), Encounters and dialogues: Changing perspectives on Chinese-Western exchanges from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries (Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 2005).

15. Ad Dudink, in Nicolas Standaert (ed.), Handbook of Christianity in China, vol. 1: 635 -1800 (Leiden: Brill, 2001), p. 515.

16. Jonathan D. Spence, 'Claims and counter-claims: The Kangxi emperor and the Europeans (1661-1722)', in D. E. Mungello (ed.), The Chinese Rites Controversy: Its history and meaning (Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 1994), p. 15.

17. D. E. Mungello, 'An introduction to the Chinese Rites Controversy', in Mungello (ed.), Rites Controversy, pp. 4-5.

18. Nicolas Standaert, 'Rites Controversy', in Standaert (ed.), Handbook of Christianity in China, p. 685.

19. Kenneth Scott Latourette, A history of Christian missions in China (London: SPCK, 1929), p. 156.

20. Christal Whelan, 'Introduction', in Whelan (trans.), The beginning of heaven and earth: The sacred book of Japan's hidden Christians (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1996), pp. 9-10.

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