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Figure 6 Church of Parinacota, Chile. Completed in 1789, this New World church employs rustic materials and craftsmanship, and achieves a unified and flawlessly tasteful effect. The interior of the church is decorated with primitive frescoes. (Photograph in the Butler Collection, Centre for the Study of Christianity in the Non-Western World, University of Edinburgh.)

Figure 6 Church of Parinacota, Chile. Completed in 1789, this New World church employs rustic materials and craftsmanship, and achieves a unified and flawlessly tasteful effect. The interior of the church is decorated with primitive frescoes. (Photograph in the Butler Collection, Centre for the Study of Christianity in the Non-Western World, University of Edinburgh.)

of northern Colombia and the Chiriguanos of Bolivia, repeatedly destroyed mission settlements when they were established and successfully resisted the efforts at evangelization.

Other groups accepted or could not prevent the establishment of missions and suffered devastating consequences. This was particularly true in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Californias. In Maranhao and in the Amazon territories, the Jesuits fought a constant battle with the settler population over the issue of the freedom of the evangelized populations and, despite crown support in the late 1680s, they were never really able to suppress the enslavement of the mission Indians. In these areas the appearance of the missions led to the disappearance of the indigenous cultures.

Jesuit and Franciscan missions in the Californias had a similar tragic result, though for different reasons. In the Californias, the issue was not exploitation, but misguided humanitarianism. The missions in Lower California were opened in 1697, and the crown agreed to give the Jesuits authority to close the territory to Hispanic settlers. The Society intended to show that it was possible to bring an area under the authority of the crown and Christianize it

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