be regulated exclusively according to royal preferences. Rights of sanctuary were also virtually abolished, and it was further agreed that the church's property acquired since 1620 should be subject to normal civil taxation. In the Kingdom of Naples, there was a long-standing regalist tradition suspicious of both the Jesuits and the Holy Office, and resentful of the annual tribute of the chinea, the traditional symbol of papal suzererainty over Naples itself. Anticurial sentiment intensified over papal hesitation at sufficiently recognizing the Bourbon succession in 1734. It ended with a 1741 concordat (there was a second in 1745) and the final abolition of the Holy Office's authority in questions of state. The Bourbon dynasty showed itself unhesitatingly determined to police the church-state boundary lines in its own favour and, over the course of the next half century, diminished rights of sanctuary were established, clergy became liable for taxation, and the principle that only Neapolitans should hold benefices in the kingdom was put beyond dispute. The last symbolic act in this very Catholic form of Erastianism came in 1788 when Ferdinand refused the chinea. A four-year standoff between himself and Pius VI ensued. Eventually, with almost half the sees in southern Italy vacant and the French Revolution demanding his undivided attention, the pope gave way. But the locus classicus of state-sponsored reform Catholicism in the late eighteenth century was the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, a small state of about one million people, run by Maria Theresa's son, Peter Leopold. Catholic reform was not a new current in the duchy but Peter Leopold came to see himself as an 'external bishop' interfering in clerical education and prescribing reading lists almost on the scale of his elder brother, the emperor Joseph II. It was the century's ultimate expression of Caesaropapism, one in which the church seemed programmed for absorption by the state. This was the position in 1780 when the Grand Duke recruited the new Bishop of Pistoia and Prato, Scipione de' Ricci, to be his principal collaborator, the prelate who became known as 'the pope of Tuscany'.

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